高中英语语法大全 第四章 动词的语气
    Category: 高中英语  Clicks: 1884  Top: 10  Update Date: 2008/09/14
Summary:第四章 动词的语气 一.概念 语气有三种:陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气.语气表示说话人对劝词所示示的动作或所处的状态持有的态度或看法. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.辨别if 引导真实条件句和if引导的虚拟条件句的区别 If he has time, he will go with us.= Probably he has time and will go with us. If he.

  • 第四章 动词的语气
    一.概念
    语气有三种:陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气.语气表示说话人对劝词所示示的动作或所处的状态持有的态度或看法.
    二.相关知识点精讲
    1.辨别if 引导真实条件句和if引导的虚拟条件句的区别
    If he has time, he will go with us.= Probably he has time and will go with us.
    If he had time, he would go with us.=But in fact he has no time.
    2.虚拟条件句中主句和从句的谓与动词构成形式如下表






    if条件句中的谓与动词

    主句的谓与动词


    与现在的事实相反


    1. 行为动词用did 形式
    2. be动词用were

    should
    would
    could + 动词原形
    might


    与过去的事实相反


    had + done

    should
    would
    could + have + done
    might


    与将来的事实相反

    1. 行为动词用did
    2. should + 动词原形
    3. were to + 动词原形

    should
    would
    could + 动词原形
    might
    3.混合时间的虚拟语气
    如果条件句中的动作和主句的动作不是同时发生,主句和从句的谓语动词的形式应分别根据各自所表示的时间加以调整。
    1)0If I had received the passport yesterday, I would start today.
    2)If he had telephoned me last night, I would see him now.
    3)If he had followed the doctor’s advice, he would be all right now.
    4)If China had not been liberated, the working people would still be leading a miserable life.
    4.should/ could / might/ ought to + have done 表示“过去本应该/可以做而实际上却没做”
    needn’t have done 表示“过去没必要作而实际上做了”
    5.虚拟语气中的倒装句
    如果虚拟语气的条件从句谓语动词中含有were, had, could, should,有时可将if省去,而将条件从句的主语置于were, had, should, could 之后。
    Had you invited us, we would have come to your party.
    Were I you, I would do more practice after class.
    Could she lend us a helping hand, she would do so.
    6.wish 后面的宾语从句的谓语动词应使用虚拟语气, 表示“可惜…;….就好了; 悔不该…;但愿…。”




    主句谓语

    从句谓语


    wish

    时态

    谓语动词的形式


    现在时
    表示与wish同时发生

    动词用过去时
    be动词用were


    过去时
    表示在wish之前发生的动作

    动词用had done
    be用had been


    将来时
    表示在wish之后发生的动作

    动词用would do; should do
    be 用 would be ; should be
    1)I wish I knew the key to the answer.
    2)I wish I were ten years younger.
    3)I wish that I had gone to the football match last week.
    4)I wish that you had been here yesterday.
    5)He wishes that we would visit the old school.
    7.表示命令或建议动词suggest, insist, propose, desire, demand, request, order, command 后的宾语从句中应使用虚拟 should +动词原形; should 不可用would 来替代; 主句所使用的动词时态不限。
    8.suggest 为“建议去做…; 命令…”从句用should + do
    为“ 说明; 暗示”, 从句用过去时或过去完成时。
    1) The doctor suggested that I should take the medicine three times a day.
    2) The doctor suggested that my grandmother had caught a bad cold.
    9.insist “坚持要去做…,坚持应该去做”,从句用should + do为“坚持表明,坚持说/解释”, 从句用过去时或过去完成时。
    10.虚拟语气也用于表语从句和主语从句中,表示间接的命令、要求、请求、建议、决定等,主句的主语通常是suggestion, proposal, request, order, idea 等。表语从句中的谓语动词是should +动词原型,should 可以省略。
    11.在主语从句中,当从句用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜等,从句的谓语动词用需拟语气形式。其谓语动词时should + 动词原型, 或should 省略。

    三.巩固练习
    1. If there were no subjunctive mood, English _________ much easier.
    A. will be B. would have been
    C. could have been D. would be
    2. If I _____ you, I’d join the army.
    A. am B. was C. were D. would be
    3. If he _______ tomorrow, he would find Mr Wang in the office.
    A. comes B. will come C. should come D. come
    4. If it _______ next week , the crops would be saved.
    A. rains B. will rains C. would rain D. should rain
    5. If I _______ it, I would do it in a different way.
    A. were to do B. do C. had done D. was to do
    6. Supposing the weather ________ bad, where would you go ?
    A. is B. will be C. were D. be
    7. If he had worked harder, he _________.
    A. would succeed B. had succeeded
    C. should succeed D. would have succeeded
    8. If he ________, he _________ that food.
    A. was warned; would not take
    B. had been warned; would not have taken
    C. would be warned; had not taken
    D. would have been warned; had not taken
    9. If my lawyer _________ here last Saturday, he _______ me from going.
    A. had been; would have prevented
    B. had been; would prevent
    C. were; would prevent
    D. were; would have prevented
    10. If he ______ it, he _______ it.
    A. had seen; could have believed B. saw; couldn’t believe
    C. saw; couldn’t have believed D. has seen; had believed
    11. —Do you think the thief entered through the window?
    —No, if he had, I don’t believe, _______ broken the living-room’s window.
    A. he would have B. he must have
    C. he had D. should he have
    12. —Did you go swimming last Sunday?
    —No. We would have gone ______ nicer.
    A. if the weather was
    B. would the weather have been
    C. had the weather been
    D. should the weather be
    13. ______ it ______ for your help, I couldn’t have made any progress.
    A. Had; not been B. Should; not been
    C. Did; not been D. Not; been
    14. _______ today, he would get there by Friday.
    A. Would have left B. Was he leaving
    C. Were he to leave D. If he leaves
    15. It is ordered that a new bridge ______ over the wide river.
    A. should be built B. would built
    C. will be built D. built
    四.答案
    1.D 2.C 3.C 4.D 5.A 6.C 7.D 8.B 9.A 10.A 11.D 12.C 13.A 14.C 15.A
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