世界名画:阿尔诺菲尼的婚礼(The Arnolfini Portrait)
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Summary:全称:乔凡尼.阿尔诺菲尼夫妇肖像画(1434年)/现藏伦敦国家美术馆This work is a portrait of Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini and his wife, but is not intended as a record of their wedding. His wife is not pregnant, as is often though.

  • 全称:乔凡尼.阿尔诺菲尼夫妇肖像画(1434年)/现藏伦敦国家美术馆This work is a portrait of Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini and his wife, but is not intended as a record of their wedding. His wife is not pregnant, as is often thought, but holding up her full-skirted dress in the contemporary fashion. Arnolfini was a member of a merchant family from Lucca living in Bruges.本件作品是阿尔诺菲尼夫妇的肖像,但此画的本意并非记录他们的婚礼。虽然很多人会误解,但画中的妻子并未怀孕,只是穿着那个时代时髦的大摆裙。阿尔诺菲尼是居住在比利时布鲁日的意大利卢卡商人。The ornate Latin signature translates as 'Jan van Eyck was here 1434'. The similarity to modern graffiti is not accidental. Van Eyck often inscribed his pictures in a witty way. The mirror reflects two figures in the doorway. One may be the painter himself. Arnolfini raises his right hand as he faces them, perhaps as a greeting.
    墙上华丽的拉丁文翻译过来是“扬.凡.艾克在场(1434)”。这样的墙上涂鸦可不是偶然的,扬.凡.艾克常常喜欢用巧妙的方式来给他的作品签名。从镜子中可以观察到门口的两人,其中一个也许是画家本人。阿尔诺菲尼在面对门口的同时举起右手,也许是表示欢迎。Van Eyck was intensely interested in the effects of light: oil paint allowed him to depict it with great subtlety in this picture, notably on the gleaming brass chandelier.扬.凡.艾克本人对光的效果有十分浓烈的兴趣:油画使得他能够十分精妙地描绘光泽效果,尤其是两人头顶那只金光闪烁的吊灯。扩展阅读:看一副优秀的艺术品也像讲故事,每个人都能给出不同的版本,真正的意义存在与画面与欣赏者之间。只要用自己的眼睛,每个人都能发现其中的美妙和乐趣。扬.凡.艾克的这副名画也是一样,除开这部作品的表明意义,后人也对它进行了很多解读,试图去探究画家在作品中隐含的深意。虽然有些结论难免牵强和武断,但对于读者欣赏这幅作品也许能提供一些帮助,我们姑且列出。"The Arnolfini Marriage" is a name that has been given to this untitled double portrait by Jan van Eyck, now in the National Gallery, London.本来这张画并没有名字,在1934年,艺术史家帕诺夫斯基(Erwin Panofsky)根据16世纪的著录,将作品定名为“阿尔诺菲尼的婚礼”,本画目前藏于伦敦国家美术馆。
    Despite the restricted space, the painter has contrived to surround them with a host of symbols. To the left, the oranges placed on the low table and the windowsill are a reminder of an original innocence, of an age before sin. Unless, that is, they are not in fact oranges but apples (it is difficult to be certain), in which case they would represent the temptation of knowledge and the Fall. Above the couple's heads, the candle that has been left burning in broad daylight on one of the branches of an ornate copper chandelier can be interpreted as the nuptial flame, or as the eye of God. The small dog in the foreground is an emblem of fidelity and love. Meanwhile, the marriage bed with its bright red curtains evokes the physical act of love which, according to Christian doctrine, is an essential part of the perfect union of man and wife.尽管空间局促,画家还是在他们的周围精心布置了一系列象征。在左侧,放置在窗台、茶几上的橙子象征着的少年的纯洁和天真无邪的岁月。然而,这些水果也可能是苹果(从画面很难确定),象征着欲望和堕落的诱惑。在两人头顶上方,朗朗白日之下却留有一根点燃的蜡烛,华丽铜制吊灯上的这根燃蜡也许能解释为婚礼的光芒,或者是代表上帝的眼睛。地上的小狗象征着忠诚与爱情。两人身后,大红色的垂帘的婚床使人联想起“爱的肉体行为”,根据基督教义,这样的行为是夫妻完美结合的要素。Although all these different elements are highly charged with meaning, they are of secondary importance compared to the mirror, the focal point[焦点] of the whole composition. It has often been noted that two tiny figures can be seen reflected in it, their image captured as they cross the threshold[入口] of the room. They are the painter himself and a young man, doubtless arriving to act as witnesses to the marriage. The essential point, however, is the fact that the convex[凸起的] mirror is able to absorb and reflect in a single image both the floor and the ceiling of the room, as well as the sky and the garden outside, both of which are otherwise barely visible[可视的] through the side window. The mirror thus acts as a sort of hole in the texture of space[空间的结构]. It sucks the entire visual world into itself, transforming it into a representation.The cubic space in which the Arnolfinis stand is itself a prefiguration[预示] of the techniques of perspective[透视法] which were still to come. Van Eyck practised perspective on a purely heuristic[启发式的] basis, unaware of the laws by which it was governed. In this picture, he uses the mirror precisely in order to explode the limits of the space to which his technique gives him access as soon as it threatens to limit him.
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