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Summary:Culture shock is so named because of the effectit has on people when they enter a new culture.Experts have been interested in these effectsand have agreed onfive basic stages of culture shock..

  • Culture shock is so named because of the effectit has on people when they enter a new culture.Experts have been interested in these effectsand have agreed onfive basic stages of culture shock. These stagesare general and should only beused as a reference. Not every individual willgo through each stage, and one stage may last longer that another for differentindividuals.  The hardest thing for most travelers to dealwith is the emotional “rollercoaster” they seem to be riding. One moment theyfeel very positive toward thenew culture, and the next moment very negative.It seems common that international visitors andimmigrants vacillate between loving and hating anew country. Feelings of separation andalienation can be intensified if they do nothave a sense of fitting in or belonging.Fatigue is another problem people face whenentering a new culture. There can be a sense ofa greater need for sleep. This is due not onlyto physical tiredness, but also to mentalfatigue. This mental fatigue comes fromstraining to comprehend the language, and copingwith new situations.   The impact of culture shock can vary from personto person. There can be significant differencesbecause some people may be better prepared toenter a new culture. Four factors which playinto these are personality, language ability,length of stay, and the emotional supportreceived.  It is logical to think that when people aredeprived of their familiar surroundings theywill feel disoriented. One solution some havefound is to bring a few small reminders of home.Pictures, wall hangings, favorite utensils, andkeepsakes are all good candidates to make thingsfeel more familiar. Another helpfulactivity is to establish little routines thatbecome familiar over time. Even better isfitting things that were part of the regularroutine back in the home country into theroutine established in the new culture. Thiswill make people feel more at home.Questions:
      1. According to Para. one, experts haveinterests in__________________________________________________________________。  2. Emotional “roller coaster” refers__________________________________________________________________。  3. When entering a new culture, the problemspeople face are____________________________________________________________________.  4. Copying with new situation may result in_____________________________________________________________________。  5. According to the author, the more effectiveway to solve “cultural shock” is____________________________________________________________.
    答案部分短文大意  本文介绍了“文化休克”一词的来由:文化休克是由于它对接触一种陌生文化的人们所造成的影响而得名。接下来,文章依次介绍了人们接触陌生文化时所面临的重要难题。以及影响文化休克的四个因素,此外还介绍了解决文化休克问题的几个方法。
    1.【参考答案】 Cultural shock’s effect on people.【答题技巧】 联系上下文是寻找本题答案的方法。【详细解答】 第一段的第一句话就提到:文化休克是由于它对接触一种陌生文化的人们所造成的影响而得名。在第二句话中得知Experts have been interestedin these effects and …此句中的theseeffects虽然成为复数,但指的仍是第一句中:the effect it has onpeople when they enter a new culture.答案由此而来。
    2.【参考答案】 unsteadily feeling toward new culture【答题技巧】 “由后向前归纳”是本题的技巧。【详细解答】 本题问的是:情绪上的“环滑车”指的是什么?文中提到:One moment they feel very positive toward the newculture,and the next moment very negative.由于是简短回答,我们便总结为“unsteadily feeling touard a newculture.”
    3.【参考答案】 are emotional "roller coaster" and fatigue 【答题技巧】 从问题入手,深入下去是本题的捷径。 【详细解答】 从第三段的第一句话入手:Fatigue is another problem people face when entering a newculture“another”一词表明,前面第二段涉及的还有另一个问题。
    4.【参考答案】 the mental fatigue【答题技巧】 由原因推向结果是解题的思题。【详细解答】 本题只要注意到了第三段的最后一句:The mental fatigue comes from straining to comprehend the language,and copingwith new situations.答案便迎刃而解。本句,The mental fatigue 是结果,coping with newsituation是原因之一,本题问题是coping with newsituation可能引起什么。那么,我们只要由原因推向结果即可。
    5.【参考答案】 fitting some regular routines into the new culture.【答题技巧】 浏览一个段落,通过比较得出结论是本题的关键。【详细解答】 解决“文化休克”的最有效的办法是什么,文中最后一段提到,one solution…is to…,Another activity isto …,Even better is …,据作者的口气,三个方案中,最有效的建议便是:fitting things that werepart of theregular routine back in the home country intothe routine established in the newculture,对于这么长的方案,我们只挑主要的说就可以了。

    改错部分Test 1  Directions: This part consists of one passage.In each passage there are altogether 10mistakes, one in each numbered line. You mayhave to change word, add a word or delete(删去) aword. If you change a word, cross it out andwrite correct word in the corresponding blank.If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) inthe right place and write the missing word inthe blank. If you delete a word, cross it outand put a slash (/) in the blank.
      Few football grounds boast a more prestigious address than the Bernabeu, lies as it does onthe 1. ____  Castellana,the threelining highway that runsthrough 2.____  the heart of Madrid. As Real date back to 1902, when the Sociedad 3.____  Madrid Football Club was formed, it was notuntil 1920 when the club was granted permission to usethe 4. ____  Real (royal) prefix. Work began on the currentstadium in October 1944. The land had beenpurchasedon three million pesetas; construction coststotalled a 5. ____  further 38 million, a staggered sum for thetime. The 6. ____  cost of the new stadium led to claims, neverproving, 7. _____  that Real had received financial aid fromGeneralFranco‘s government. Under Bernabeu’spatronage,Real Madrid became the greatest club side ever,won 8. ____  the European Champions Cup a record five timesin arow between 1956 and 1960, a remarkable featthatis unlikely to be challenged. Madrid lies, quite literally, at the heart ofSpain.This is no small coincidence that thecapital‘s 9. ____  leading football club is seen like a symbol ofall 10. ____  things Spanish, just as FC Barcelona is a beaconforthe independent Catalan spirit.
    答案部分 1.【参考答案】将lies改为lying。【参考译文】 没有别的体育场位置能与伯纳贝乌体育场位置相媲美了,它位于卡斯特拉纳,位于穿越马德里市中心这条高速公路的三叉路口。【试题分析】 本题辨析主句与分词状语关系的误用。【详细解答】 lies as it does on the Castellana,虽然主语应该是Bernabeu,但由于前面Few football grounds boast a more prestigiousaddress than the Bernabeu是比较级的句子,而且比较对象很明确:是Few football grounds 与theBernabeu,而lies的误用,导致了句子结构的混乱。鉴于lies as it does…是对the Bernabeu的补充说明,故将lies改为lying,使之与后面的句子变成状语,就解决了问题。
    2.【参考答案】将threelining改为threelined。【参考译文】 译文同上句。【试题分析】 本题辨析分词作定语时的误用。【详细解答】threelining与其修饰词highway的逻辑关系是被动的。而现在分词往往是与其修饰词的关系是主动的。因此,将threelining改为threelined。3.【参考答案】将as改为Though。【参考译文】 尽管皇家马德里队的历史可追溯到1902年索西达德马里足球俱乐部队成立之时,但是直到1920年,俱乐部才被允许在其名字之前 冠以“皇家”二字。【试题分析】 本题辨析连接词的误用。【详细解答】 Real date back to 1920与it was not until 1920 that the club was granted permission to use theRealprefix之间的逻辑关系应是转折关系,而as的误用导致了关系的混乱。改为表示转折的Though/Although.
    4.【参考答案】将when改为that。【参考译文】 译文同上句。【试题分析】 本题辨析连接词的误用。【详细解答】 强调句与定语从句的区别主要有两点:引导词与引导词前后的句子的结构。强调句的连词除了强调人可以是who 以外,都用that.另外一点,强调句前半部分是“It is…”,句意不完整,that后面的部分也不完整,只有将It is…that中间的成分移到后面才完整。本句是强调句,而不是定语从句,故when属误用,须将when改为that.5.「参考答案」将on改为for.
    5.【参考译文】 购买体育场地皮花去300万比赛塔,建造费用总共达3800万比赛塔。【试题分析】 本题辨析介词的误用。【详细解答】介词的作用在英语中的作用是不容忽视的,每一个介词都有其独特的用途。on除了表示时间,空间位置外,还可以表示“在……方面”,不表示花费多少钱。故句中on属误用,将之改为表示数目多少的介词“for”。
    6.【参考答案】将staggered改为staggering。【参考译文】 在当时,这是一笔令人惊愕的数目。【试题分析】 本题辨析同源的形容词的误用。【详细解答】 以“ed”结尾的形容词主语一般修饰人,表示“感到……的”,以“ing”结尾的形容词一般修饰非生命的“物”,表示“令人……的”,句中sum是staggered逻辑主语,故staggered属误用,将之改为staggering.
    7.【参考答案】将proving改为proven。【参考译文】 新建体育场的巨大耗资引起了许多传言,还说皇家马德里队曾接受过佛朗哥政府的资助,但从未得到证实。【试题分析】 本题辨析做状语时,分词的误用。【详细解答】 never proving是主句The cost of the new stadium led to claims的分词状语,proving的逻辑主语是that Real had receivedfinancial aid from GeneralFranco‘sgovernment,在关系上与proven属被动,因此,proving属误用,改为proven.
    8.【参考答案】将won改为winning。【参考译文】 在伯纳贝乌的资助下,皇家马德里最终成为最优秀的一支俱乐部足球队,在1956年至1960年期间,这支球队五连冠夺得欧洲足球冠军杯。【试题分析】 本题辨析分词在作状语时的误用。【详细解答】 由won开始的状语短语,逻辑主语是Real Madrid,主语和won的逻辑关系是主动的。won是误用,因此改为winning。
    9.【参考答案】将This改为It。【参考译文】 这支首都著名足球俱乐部队被视为西班牙民族精神的象征,就像巴塞罗那足球俱乐部队是独立的加泰罗尼亚精神的标志一样,这绝不是巧合。【试题分析】 本题辨析作形式主语时代词的误用。【详细解答】 本句是长句子,真正的主语是that后面的部分。为了保持句子的平衡,将较长的主语放在后面,而将 it放在句首,做形式主语,是英语惯用的手段。而本句用this作形式主语是不合适的,故改为it.
    10.【参考答案】将like改为as。【参考译文】 译文同上句。【试题分析】 本题辨析将介语用作连词的误用。【详细解答】 在作“像……”这一意思时,like虽与as词意看似相似,但用法区别很大。like是介词,连接名词或代词,as是连词,连结句子,而FGBarcelona is a beacon for the independentCatalan spirit是个句子,故like属误用,应改为as.
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