托福考试试题 (二)
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Summary:Section 2Structure and Written Expression Time--25 minutesThe Structure and Written expression section is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard writt.

  • Section 2Structure and Written Expression Time--25 minutesThe Structure and Written expression section is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard written English. There are two types of questions in this section, with special directions for each type.StructureDirections: Questions 1-15 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see four words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C),and (D). Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Then, on your answer sheet, ifnd the number of the question and fill in the space that orresponds to the letter of the answer you ahve chosen Fill in the space so that the letter inside the oval cannot be seen.Look at the following examples:Example IFor many centuries---the principal raw material Sample answerfor making ropes and sails.(A) then was hemp(B) the time hemp was (C) hemp was(D) hempThe sentence should read, "For many cenries hemp was the principle raw material for making ropes and sails." Therefore, you should choose (C).Example IIThe sea anemone, a marine animal related to the jelly fish, Sample answerlooks like a plant----like other animal species.(A) so(B) rather than(C) instead(D) rather notThe sentence should read, "The sea anemone, a marine animal related to the jelly fish, looks like a plant rather than like other animal species." Theerefore, you should choose (D).Nowbegin work on the questions.1. Most substances expand when they evaporate so that the density of a substance's gas is---of its liquid.(A) than the lower density(B) lower than that(C) the density is lower than that(D) the lower the density2. The process by which nerve cells send signals is --- clearly understood.(A) none(B) no(C) not(D) nothing3. Arctic animals--- a means of controlling body temperature in such a cold, barren climate if they are to survive.(A) need(B) needing(C) to need(D) was needed4. -----state of California is also known as the "Golden State" because California's hills were once believed to be made of gold.(A) The (B) There is a (C) That the (D) As the 5. Aspartame is a combination of proteins that is much sweeter----(A) than sugar does(B) does cane sugar(C) cane sugar(D) than cane sugar6. Current patterns and topography maps of the seas ---- from satellite photographs.(A) can be drawn(B) can drawn(C) to draw(D) drawn7. By the middle of the nioneteenth century, the scientists and engineers in the United States had began to exert --- over technology.(A) influence worldwide a great(B) a great worldwide influence(C) influence a great worldwide(D) a worldwide influence great8. ----billions of barrels of oil exist in the vast caverns beneath the Pacific Oceans(A) It is estimated that(B) An estimate that(C) That is estimated(D) That the estimate9. The extent of the stimulant effect of coffee on people depends on the circumstances ---- the plants grow.(A) which (B) which in(C) in which(D) in10. The guitar solo first ---- as a popular form of musical performance in the twentieth century.(A) to emerge(B) emerging(C) has emerged(D) emerged11. --- complex organic compounds originating in cells.(A) Lipieds(B) Lipids are (C) Lipids which are(D) Lipids while they12. In the western part of Nevada ----, a major tourist and entertainment center.(A) lies the city of Las Vegas(B) the city of Las Vegas lies there(C) around the city of Las Vegas lies(D) there lies the city of Las vegas around13. Work on superconductivity, ---, has attracted a relatively small number of researchers.(A) is a very specialized field(B) which a very specialized field is (C) a very specialized field(D) a field very specialized which14. ---, the fist Amendment to the Constitution provided for freedom of speech, press and assembly.(A) In 1791 they drafted(B) The draft in 1791(C) In 1791 was drafted(D) Drafted in 179115. When --- in desert climates, the Navajo construct lean-tos as temporary summer shelters.(A) travel(B) to travel(C) traveling them(D) traveling

    Written ExpressionDirectios: In questions 16-40 each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. The four undelined parts of the sentence are marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.Looke at the following examples:Example 1 Sampel AnswerIn many cities in the world, the air is much moreA BPolluted than it is in the 1970s.C DThe sentence should read, "in many cities in the world, the air is much more polluted than it was in the 1970s." there fore, you should choose (D).Example IIThe computer plays a vital role in development,A Bcommunication, and disseminating of ideas in today's world.C DThe sentence should read, "The computer plays a vital role in development, communication, and dissemination of ideas in today's world." Therefore, youshould choose (C).Now begin work on the questions.16. For years small communities of researchers have living underground Ain parts of the arctic where the climate is harsh and the winds are Bstrong.D17. Thomas Edison made the first microphone for self by combining a thin A B Creed and a metal conductor together.D18. Not only do hydroelectric power systems provide people with irrigation and drinking water, but they also provide importantly sources of electrical power.19. The Federal Communications Commission supervises the suitable and quality of radio.20. All cars, alike most trains and a few propeller planes, depend on combustion inside a piston cylinder.21. The expansion of adult education centers had resulted partially from the service-based economy, which encouraging employees to update their skills for the changing job market.22. The most significant evolutionary characteristic of the primates are the development of the opposable thumb.23. Ludwig Beethoven was often indifferent to the titles of his composed and was generally oblivious to the names given them years after their completion.24. Benny Goodman's orchestra, playing his original compositions and arrangements, achieving a fine distinction among his peers and contributed numerous innovations to modern big band jazz.25. Mosquitoes are almost completey deaf, although its tiny ears can distinguish noise from silence.26. Weed is a horticultural term referring toward unpleasant, unwanted, or intolerable plant growth.27. susan B. Anthony, the first woman to vote in the United Sates, founded the American Women't Suffrage Movement, an institution that have always had a woment's rights agenda.28. Criminal assault, committed against a member of the public, may consist of harassing behavior, threatening, or physical harm to others.29. The realist movement in art was a reaction against abstract methods of portray reality.30. During the 1950's skilled computer programmers scrce were in what is now Silicon Valley.31. If a atom gains any electrons, it becomes negatively charged and can combine with other atoms.32. The Parks and Recreation Department conduct extensive research on a great many aspects of the wilderness.33. The analgesic most commonly administeed in medicine is aspirin, who produces reduction of pain over a general area.34. Certain types of pumps work properly only in environmens with controlled precisely pressures.35. Whales, while not as curious than the dolphins, show more persistence and use of communication in facing a problem.36. The belief in goblins have existed from the earliest times, and the leends of many different peoples includes tales of goblins and their relationship to humans.37. Electronic music enables artists to experiment with many sounds effects.38. Denver, Colorado's capital and largest city, is industrial and baning center.39. A hamster's sharp teeth can chew through wood, plastic, or soft metallic such as aluminum.40. Anthropological studies have concluded that deeply hold belief and principles are highly ressistant to alteration.
    THIS IS THE END OF SECTION 2.IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON SECTION 2 ONLY.DONOT READ OR WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION OF THE TEST.THE SUPER VISOR WILL TELL YOU WHEN TO BEGIN WORK ON SECTION 3.
    Section 3 Reading ComprehensionDirectins: In the Reading Comprehension Section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by a number of questions about it. For questions 1-50, you are to choose the one best answer (A), (B), (C), or (D), to each question. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of answer you have chosen.Answer all questions about the information in a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.Read the following passage:There are two genus in the elephant family. Each of the genus include a single species that developed different characteristics due to geographical isolation. One species is the African elephant and the other is a Asian elephant. The two types of elephant share a number of common features, such as a long trunk, large ears and a massive body, but there are many differences as well. The differences between the elephants can largely be accounted for by their habitats' environment.Example IWhat is the main purpose of the passage?(A) to discuss the two different types of elephants.(B) Tio argue the superiority of the African elephant in adapting to the environment.(C) To demonstrate the relative intelligence of the two types of elephant.(D) To show the similarities of elephants.The main idea of passage is to discuss the wo different types of elephants. Thereore, you should choose (A).Example IIIn line 6, the term, "be accounted for` could best be replaced by(A) be calculated to (B) be devided(C) be determined(D) be acceptedThe term "be accounted for" in line 6 is closet in meaning to "be determined." Therefore, you should choose (C).Now begin work on the questions.Questions 1-10The popularly applauded designs found in Frank Lloyd Wright's integration of architcture, landscaping and interior design, gave evidence to his belief that the form of a working or living space should follow from its function within the community.Line Whether working on residential or commercial projects, he concentraed on creating(5) an appropriate exterior and interior environment.In his residentilal housing, functionality translated into a harmonious relationship with the natural flora, fauna and geographic disposition of the land. The most famous modification he implemented in his early " prairie school houses", the gently sloping roof lines that sought to capture the contours of the prairie, typified his concept of harmony with the land. Other features included, wide doorways, rooms ccentrally connected without hallways, extensive use of glass and widely overhanging eaves which provided extensive shelter. To emphasize the integrative aspects of his construction, he tried to incorporate built-in furniture wherever possible.The Larkin Building, in Buffalo, New York, an examle of thoroughly practical factory headquarters, demonstrated that, when designing for the commercial sector, Wright's functionalism adapted itself to the projec at hand as eloquently as when he created single-family units. The building itself is of sufficient width to completely conceal the factory behind it, creating a neat, organized and efficient appearance. Even more notable than the exterior of the building, the interior displays Wright's imaginative talent to the greatest degree.In order to minimize on cluttered floor space, almost everything in the office was mobile, particulrly the filing cabinets, which could be completely hidden from view with a simple push. The office desks were custom designed from solid steel with special fold-out chairs that made it much easier to clean the floors. A special grade of tile was used on the walls to facilitate cleaning. The zeal which the architect devoted to integrating the building with the needs of the office environment extended to the installation of secial steel toilets which folded into the walls until needed for use.1. What is the main topic of the passage?(A) The life of Frank Lloyd Wright(B) Frank Lloyd Wright's design ideas(C) The commercial buildings of Frank Lloyd Wright(D) Frank Lloyd Wright's Prarie School buildings2. Which of the folowing is NOT menitioned as a field wright worked in?(A) Landscaping(B) Interior design(C) Architecture(D) Painting3. In line 3, the word "its" refers to (A) the community(B) the function(C) the form(D) the space4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an important consideration of Wright's residential housing?(A) Plant life around the area(B) The ease of mainteance(C) Animals found in the area(D) The geography of the building site5. According to the passage, what is the most distinctive feature of a "prarie house" design?(A) The color(B) The furniture(C) The wood(D) The roof line6. In line 9, the word "typifed" is closest in meaning to(A) enjoyed(B) exemplifed(C) terminated(D) normalized7. It can be inferred that Wright designed his own furniture for the Larking building because(A) he couldn't find the appropriate colors(B) he could design his own for less money(C) he wanted the environment of the building to be integrated(D) he didn't trust the quality of other furniture 8. What is the Larking Building most noted for?(A) Its steel furniture(B) Its high-grade tile(C) Its overall practicality(D) Its exterior architecture9. In line 22, the word "mobile" most closely means?(A) Portable(B) Raised(C) sturdy(D) Small10. What qualities could probably be observed from the Larkin Building's interior design?(A) Neat and organized(B) Solid and stable(C) Extended and clean(D) Wide and efficentQuestions 11-20In America, the movement of housing away from the high-rise buildings of the inner-cites originated in the 1920s, but was stalled by the Great Depression of the 1930s and by World War II. After the war a tremendous surge occurred in the realeastate market with the advent of single-family homes on relatively small lots--typically less than one-tenth of an acre. During the 1950s, many large tract developments encroached on former farmlands near metropolitan areas. The most dramatic instances of this sprawling effect were witnessed in western municipalities such as San Jose and San Diego whose citycharters defined their boundaries over several hundred square kilometers. These large parcels of land were overrun by. standard three bedroom, two bath, "ranch-style" homes in a few short deoedes.By the 1960s construction had subsided significantly and developers began building different kinds of plans to try and accommodate the changes in the market. Those who had taken advantage of the suburbanization trend in he post-war years had seen the value of their real estate increase dramatially and many were anxious to re-invest their assets. In an effort to reap this affluence, certain contractors moved away from the standard models and began designing larger buildings on increasingly spacious parcels even farther from city centers. Other builders began working on home to meet the needs of young couples starting new families. The townhouse, a two to three-story brick and frame structure containing more than 4 but less than 30 units per structure, wa seen as the solution. These aprtments were successful in luring many young adult city dwellers out to the suburbs.In subsequent development, traditional single family ranch-style designs continued to be embraced, but new forms were also introduced: The condominium, a singlefamily attached dwelling; the triplex and fourplex, three-and four-family struchres; and prefabs, which have become significantly more popular durin the last 20 years owing to their low cost and ease of construction. The prefabs have the additional distinction of being mobile. It is not uncommon to see semi-trailers hauling these modular living units along the freeways to remote destinations. In a very real sense, this phenomena marks the cutting edge of suburbanization: a move out of the traditional suburbs and into areas that were formally considered wildeness.11. What is the primary topic of the passage?(A) Real-estate finance(B) Suburban housing(C) Construction techniques(D) Population increase12. According to the passage, when did suburban housing experience its greatest increase in America?(A) 1940's(B) 1950's(C) 1960's(D) 1970's13. In line 3, the word "surge" is closest in meaning to(A) increase(B) decline(C) desire(D) order14. It can be inferred that the large population increases in San Diego and San Joese were due to(A) increased employment in the area(B) excellent year-round weather(C) proximity to the coast(D) large municipal areas15. How did suburban construction change in the 1960's?(A) It increased in the cities of San Diego and San Jose.(B) It slowed and developed more specific markets.(C) It slowed and developed a unified approadch.(D) It relied more on prefab housing.16. Which of the following was NOT true of the larger suburban houses built in the sixties?(A) They were built larger than traditional suburban homes.(B) They were mainly sold to people who already.(C) they were on larger pieces of land.(D) They were closer to the city.17. In line 15, the world "reap" is closest in meaning to (A) overcome(B) harvest(C) alter(D) avoid18. According to the passage, how did the townhouse differ from a traditional suburban home?(A) They costs more to build.(B) They were built near cities.(C) Several homes were grouped together.(D) They attracted older buyers.19. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a alternative to traditional suburban housing?(A) High-rise buildings(B) Prefabricated housing(C) Triplexes and fourplexes(D) Condominiums20. What does the author imply about future housing development?(A) It will continue to move away from the city centers.(B) It will slow donw as the economy falters.(C) All housing will be mobilized.(D)The move towards suburbs has cut to the end.Questions 21-30When European explorers came across the densely clustered earthen homes of the southwestern American Indians, they described them as pueblos-the Spanish word for town or village. The name ocnveys the complexity of these ancient muti-storied buildings which marked a high point in teh enginnrng feats of the region's native people.The earthen homes were typically built beneath a large rock overhang to take advantage of the shelter from winter rains and the hot desert sun. An additional advantage of this carefully chosen location was the ability to maintain steady internal temperatures through contact with the thermal mass of solid rock along the rear walls.In the earliest times, the exteriors were made of sandstone blocks. Since this material was relatively soft, it was easy to cut slabs from the mountains and build thick walls mortared with mud from a nearby stream. In areas where the stone was either too difficult to cut, or where there was a short supply of suitable material, the blocks could be built from mud mixed with dried grass and small sticks, this product was known as "adobe."Ingenious techniques were involved in the construction of the roofs. Although there were few trees available int eh desert regions, the men of the ribe would collect any lumber long enough to cover the span between the walls. These flexible poles were then interlaced with smaller sticks, and finally with small wigs and leaves. Once the covering was strong enough to walk on, river mud and dried grasses wer eapplied in several layers until a sufficient thickness had been accumulated to give the final rigid form.The second storywas typically set back a dozen meters alowing a "front yard" for cooking, basket weaving and tanning animal skins. This teeraced effect created a spacious living environment and allowed both an organized area for domestic activities as well as an easy method of passage from one house to another.21. What is the primary topic of the passage?(A) The southwestern American Indians(B) The ancient uses of Sandstone blocks(C) The architecture of the southwestern Indian(D) The most practial ancient housing22. What can be inferred about the buildings from the fact they were named "pueblos" ?(A) They were only built near a city.(B) They could contain many people.(C) They style was created by the Spanish.(D) They were built of local materials.23. In line 4, the word "feats" is colosest in meaning to(A) accomplishments(B) destinies(C) exertions(D) celebrations24. It can be inferred that the interior section of the pueblo with the most regular temperature would be (A) the front(B) the terrace(C) the left side(D) the rear section25. What were the original pueblos built of?(A) Sticks and grass(B) Adobe(C) River mud(D) Carved blocks26. What ethod was used in areas where it was too difficult to cut stone?(A) Softer stones were used.(B) River rocks were used.(C) Mud was molded into bricks.(D) Sticks were used.27. According to the passage, what aspect of pueblo construction was most interesting?(A) The cuttign of rocks(B) The mixing of mud(C) The building of roofs(D) The terraced patios28. In line 24, the word "terraced" is closest in meaning to?(A) Stepped(B) Opened(C) Enclosed(D) Noteworthy29. Which of the following was not mentioned as an activity performed as an activity performed on the front section of the pueblo?(A) Cooking(B)Sun tanning(C) Making leather(D) Weaving30. It can be inferred that every level of the pueblo had a terraceEXCEPT(A) the second story(B) the top story(C) the first story(D) the tird storyQuestions 31-42Hydroponics, the science of growing plants in water or inert substances, represents one of the most innovative practices in moden agricultural development. Not only does it allow greater precision of the plant growth process, it permits the production of crops in hostile in fertile environments.The first widely publicized soilles gardeing experiments were conducted during the 1930's. W.F. Gericke, of the University of Califormai at Berkeley, varied nutrient levels among secimens suspended in a gravel substrate to demonstrate remarkable alterations in growth. Among the findings that amazed his fellow horticulturalists was the production of tomato plants over 6 meters high.The original hydroponic gardens merely consisted of plants floating in water. It later discovered that the roots could survive in a number of media, as long as they were supplied with sufficeint moisture, nutrients and oxyen. Avariety of materials are used in recent versions including, gravel, sand, peat, sawdust, plastics and even peanut shells. Indeed, one of the most productive methods involes suspending plants in air with a styrofoam support and spraying them occasionally with nutrient solution to keep them moist.Many different kinds of materials are suitable for physically containing plants, yet all of these systems share one trait: the culture solution. This nutrient bath is prepared in a tank by dissolving salts which provide the necessary chemicals for plant metabolism. Constant care must be taken to assure that the sodium-chloride levels in the tank do not reach excessive levels as the plants draw water and minerals out of the solution. The acidity of the tank must also be maintained aroudn 6.0 to 6.5 depending on the specific type of plants being harvested.Although soilless farming is generally more expensive than utilizing fertile land, Herbicides and pesticides are unesessary becausue of the controlled environment. The plants also need less space to grow because their untrient uptake is significantly more efficient. The most outstanding benefit, though, is the ability to produce crops in areas with poor soil conditions or insufficient rainfall.31. Which is NOT mentioned as a benefit of hydroponics?(A) More control over plant growth(B) Broader ranges of agricultural environements(C) Production of impressive specimens(D) Decreased costs compared to other methods32. What does this passage mainly discuss?(A) Soilless gardening(B) Plant nutrition(C) Growth media(D) Controling plant growth33. According to the passage, how did Gericke produce tall tomato plants?(A) He altered the type of substrate.(B) He demonstrated their growth to his fellow horticulturalists.(C) He increased the acidity of their environment.(D) He controlled their nutrition by growing without soil.34. In line 8, the word "findings" is closest in meaning to (A) outcomes(B) questions(C) verdicts(D) convictions35. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a necessity for hydroponics?(A) Moisture(B) Nutrients(C) Earth(D) Oxygen36. According to the passage, which part of the plant is most affected by the modern horticulture?(A) Leaves(B) Stems(C) Roots(D) Flowers37. In line 11, word "media" is closest in meaning to (A) commercials(B) substances(C) averages(D) organizations38. In line 15, the word "suspending" most closely means?(A) Halting(B) Revoking(C) Hanging(D) Removing39. According to the passage, what quality do all soilless systems have in common?(A) Gravel substrate(B) Natural lighting(C) Nutrient solution(D) Similar results40. Which of the following is NOT necessary to monitor in the nutrient solution?(A) sodium-chloride levels(B) Dissolved nutrient levels(C) Acidity levels(D) Proper substrate levels41. According to the passage, what would be a good reason NOT to use hydroponics?(A) Increased pesticides(B) Produces lower quality products(C) Higher cost(D) Uses less space42. In line 27, the word "uptake" is closest in meaning to(A) allowance(B) rising(C) absorption(D) respirationQuestions 43-50Whereas most animal teeth, including those of the odontocetes whales, are made of tough rock-like calcium, the mouths of the mystecetes whales are lined with a series of vertical, blade-like plates which hang from the upper jaw enabling them to filter their food from the seawater. Made from keratin, the same material found in fingernails, these food gathering combs are collectively referred to as a baleen. The whales fill their mouths with tons of seawater and then strain the collected mass through the baleen mats to estract tiny crustaceans such as krill, copepods and the occasional very small fish. Despite their large size, these whales have an esophagus of only a few inches in diameter which prohibits them from swallowing anything much larger than the smallest sardines. Instead of hunting for their prey, the baleen whales merely propel themselves through the fertile surface waters collecting the abundant material in their filtering apparatus.The odontocetes, or toothed whales, have peg-like teeth which grasp prey but do not chew it, and their throats are large enough to devour entire squids, octopus and small sharks. Under ideal conditions, they feed opportunistically upon whatever is immediately available though they are capable of diving over a half mile deep in pursuit of food. As the feeding grounds of the odontocetes vary seasonally according to the availability of prey, they typically must migrae long distances.While both the toothless mystecetes and the carnivorous odontocetes have similar physical characteristics, including an average overall isze exceeding twenty meters and a shared mammalian background, their habitats and behaviors differ due to their distinct nutritional needs. An interesting distinction is the lack of social behaviors among the toothless animals. Herding behavior demonstrates the rule among toothed whales as opposed to the baleen whales which typically travel in pairs or individually, believed to use a primitive form of communication among their peers as an aid in pursiung food.43. what is the main topic of the passage?(A) the difference between toothed and toothless whales.(B) The behavior of whales(C) The nutritional requirements for whales(D) The physical characteristics of whales44. Accoridng to the pasage, the mystecetes can be differentiated from odontocetes by(A) the presence of teeth(B) The presence of baleen(C) a mammalian background(D) large body size45. Which of the following is NOT consumed by mystecetes whales?(A) Krill(B) Copepods(C) Sardines(D) Squids46. It line 8, the word "esophagus" is closest in meaning to (A) baleen (B)teeth(C)throat(D) brain47. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a food source for odontocetes?(A) Squids(B) Sharks(C) Krill(D) Octopus48. How frequently od the odontocetes need to migrate in search of food?(A) Once a year(B) As the seasons chane(C) Every month(D) Occasionally49. Accoridng to the author, what helps explain mystecetes relatively undeveloped communication?(A) They have large nutritional requirements.(B) They do not need to hunt for food.(C) they are too large.(D) Their esophagus is too small.50. Which of the following is a similarity between the mystecetes and the odontocetes?(A) Sources of nutrition(B) Communicative abilities(C) Group behavior(D) Mammalian backgroundTHIS IS THE END OF SECTION 3IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON SECTION 3 ONLY.DO NOT READ OR WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION OF THE TEST.
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