商务英语毕业论文范文
Summary:[中文摘要] 在西方翻译研究领域,近年来可以说有两大派别占据了主导地位:一派以广义上的语言学为基础,致力于建构和发展经验性质的翻译科学;另一派则从历史的角度通过描写的方式来研究翻译问题。两者尽管大相径庭,但有一个突出的共同点,即具有较强的经验性,与纯理论研究形成了对照。本文旨在通过对三本代表性著作的考察,来管中窥豹,看当今西方两个主要译学研究派别的某些特点,同时可以对西方的纯理论研究略有了解。.

  • [中文摘要] 在西方翻译研究领域,近年来可以说有两大派别占据了主导地位:一派以广义上的语言学为基础,致力于建构和发展经验性质的翻译科学;另一派则从历史的角度通过描写的方式来研究翻译问题。两者尽管大相径庭,但有一个突出的共同点,即具有较强的经验性,与纯理论研究形成了对照。本文旨在通过对三本代表性著作的考察,来管中窥豹,看当今西方两个主要译学研究派别的某些特点,同时可以对西方的纯理论研究略有了解。
    关键词:翻译研究、新发展、代表作
    Recent Developments in Translation Studies as Seen from Three Representative Books Published in the 1990’s Dan SHEN
    Abstract: In the field of translation studies, despite the existence of multiple approaches, two trends of development seem to have been dominating in recent years: one based on linguistics in the wide sense; the other marked by a historical-descriptive orientation. While the two trends of development are contrastive with each other, they share one thing in common, namely, both being essentially empirical, forming a contrast to translation studies with a somewhat ‘purely’ theoretical orientation. The present paper offers a discussion of some recent developments in the field by way of reviewing three representative books published in the 1990’s. Through the present review, we may get a glimpse not only of the characteristics of the two major trends of development, but also of certain features of the theoretical versus the empirical orientation. Key words: translation studies, developments, representative books
    20世纪80年代初以来,西方翻译研究进展迅速。如果说西方译学研究在60和70年代的突飞猛进主要得益于语言学的快速发展的话,在近二十年里,文化研究、文学研究、人类学、信息科学、认知科学、心理学和广义上的语言学等均对翻译学科的发展起了较大的推进作用(参见Gentzler 1993, Neubert & Shreve 1992)。尽管翻译研究的方法纷呈不一,但近年来可以说有两大派别占据了主导地位:一派以广义上的语言学(尤其是语篇语言学和话语分析)为基础,致力于建构和发展经验性质的翻译科学;另一派则从历史的角度通过描写的方式来研究翻译问题,意在揭示翻译实践与研究中蕴含的文化与政治因素(参见Venuti, 1997)。
    本文旨在通过对20世纪90年代出版的三本西方译学研究代表作的考察,来看西方翻译研究新发展的一些特点。这三本著作分别为巴兹尔·哈廷姆(Basil Hatim)所著《跨文化交际:翻译理论与对比语篇语言学》(1997);哈罗尔德·基特尔(Harald Kittel)与阿明·弗兰克(Armin Frank)主编《跨文化性与文学翻译的历史研究》(1991);丁达·戈尔莱(Dinda Gorlee)所著《符号学与翻译问题》(1994)。就这三本书来说,哈廷姆的著作可视为上文提到的第一大研究派别的典型著作,基特尔与弗兰克的书则是第二大派别的一部代表作。这两大派别尽管大相径庭,但有一个突出的共同点,即具有较强的经验性。与此相对照,戈尔莱的《符号学与翻译问题》一书则是纯理论研究的代表。通过对这三本书的考察,我们不仅可以管中窥豹,看到当今西方两个主要译学研究派别的某些特点,而且可以对西方的纯理论研究略有了解。
    一 近二十年来,对比语言学、语篇语言学和翻译理论均取得了长足的进展,但将这三者结合起来研究的论著尚不多见。哈廷姆的《跨文化交际》一书在这方面作出了可喜的努力(详见Shen 1999)。哈廷姆在书中提出了一个语篇处理的理论模式。它包含语境、语篇结构和语篇组织这三大部分。在探讨语境时,哈廷姆主要采用了语域理论(the theory of register),但将符号学和语用学(主要用于意图研究)也纳入了语域分析,如下图所示(Hatim 1997:22):
    哈廷姆认为“规约性交际”(Institutional Communicative Transaction)、“语用行为”(Pragmatic Action)和“符号互动”(Semiotic Interaction)这三种语境成分对于语篇类型、语篇结构和语篇组织起决定性的作用。他以该模式为框架,以英语与阿拉伯语之间的翻译为分析对象,对语篇类型、语篇结构和语篇组织进行了系统的探讨。就语篇类型来说,哈廷姆区分了说明文和论证文这两大类。就语篇结构而言,哈廷姆主要对段落划分、嵌入主文本中的次文本的作用等展开了讨论。至于语篇组织,哈廷姆探讨了文本中的主谓递进、句间衔接手段、直接引语与间接引语等多种因素。该书在围绕作者提出的语篇处理模式进行了充分讨论之后,又扩大范围,针对语篇类型与礼貌策略之间的关系、如何对待来自两个不同文化的文本以及如何翻译非虚构性文本中的反讽性成分等问题展开了讨论。
    总的来说,该书有以下几个特点:(1) 与众多以语言学理论为基础的译学研究论著相类似,该书以一个理论模式为中心,逐层推进地展开讨论,具有很强的系统性。(2) 与传统的语言学翻译理论形成对照,该书十分强调情景语境的作用。譬如第11章在探讨语篇中表达情感的语言手段时,注重对权力关系和和意识形态之影响的探讨。(3) 该书探讨的是超过句子这一层次的语篇类型、语篇结构和语篇组织,并关注这三个层次之间的交互作用(参见Nord 1991)。(4) 该书还注重对翻译总体策略的探讨。譬如在探讨直接/间接引语时,哈廷姆指出阿拉伯人在写新闻报导时,习惯用间接引语。在将英文新闻报导中的直接引语译入阿语时,译者应采用一种间接的或者“半直接”的形式,这样方能在修辞功能上达到对等。由于以上这些特点,该书较好地揭示了语篇的组合机制和交际过程中的一些重要因素,为译学研究提供了不少新的洞见。正如诺伊贝特和施莱夫所言,语篇语言学模式将翻译对等建立在“语篇和交际的层次上,而不是句子和词汇的层次上”,因此为译学研究提供了“比句子语言学更为强有力的分析工具”
    值得一提的是,该书不仅致力于将对比语言学和语篇语言学运用于翻译研究,而且注重通过翻译研究来检验和丰富这两个语言学派。在这一点上,它有别于仅仅将语言学模式当作工具的译学研究。该书证明“在进行对比分析时,若不以话语为基础就无法达到完整。同样,缺乏对比基础的话语分析也难以达到完整。翻译则为语言对比提供了最为适用的研究框架。”(Hatim 1997: xiii)
    二 20世纪80年代以来,受文化研究大潮的影响,翻译的历史文化研究日益受到重视。值得一提的是,与以语言学模式为基础的译学研究形成对照,采用历史描写主义方法的译学研究一般仅关注文学文本。基特尔与弗兰克主编的《跨文化性与文学翻译的历史研究》是这一新的译学研究潮流的代表。这部论文集的作者均为德国戈廷根文学翻译研究中心的学者。该书主要由三部分组成。第一部分包含三篇论文,集中探讨在18世纪的德国,通过法语这一中介将英文作品间接译入德语的翻译实践。第一篇论文根据法国语言文化对译文影响之大小和德国译者对于法国的不同态度,将间接翻译英国小说的译者分为四类,并对造成他们之间差异的原因进行了深入探讨,以此揭示出18世纪德国翻译文化的复杂性。第二篇论文通过实例论证指出:虽然以法语为中介的文学翻译在1770年左右就已销声匿迹,但在非虚构性文本之范畴,这种间接翻译一直延续至18世纪末。该文对造成这两者不同步的各种历史文化原因进行了分析研究。第三篇论文专门探讨了以法语为中介的本雅明·福兰克林自传的德译。该文分析了福兰克林自传的不同译本所具有的不同特点及其蕴含意义,并挖掘了造成这些不同特点的意识形态、美学和文化等方面的各种动态因素。
    第二部分探讨的是美-德翻译中出现的文化差异和译者的不同译法。该部分由四篇论文组成。第一篇集中分析T·S·艾略特的《荒原》在不同时代的法文和德文译本。该文旨在建构一个由数种参数组成的模式,用于描写原文中的文化指涉(cultural references)和译者在译文中对这些文化因素的处理。主要有以下六种参数:1. 文化指涉的明晰度(从最为微妙的文化内涵到明确无疑的文化上的陈词滥调);2. 范围 (或者特属于某个地区、某个阶级,或者属于某个国家,或者具有文化普遍性);3. 性质(宗教、文学、艺术、体育、生活方式等等);4. 历史维度(文化指涉所处的特定历史时期);5. 语篇类型;6. 一体性或者融合性(在何种程度上文化指涉与作品融为了一体)。这六种参数为分析不同译者对《荒原》中文化指涉的不同译法提供了一个切实可行的框架。但该文指出,对其它作品的译文或者其它文学/语言/文化之间的翻译进行研究时,可能需要根据实际情况增加新的参数或者删减既定参数。此外,在一个情景语境中显得十分重要的参数,在另一个情景语境中可能会变得无足轻重。同样,由于文化之间的差异,在源文化中最为平淡无奇的文化指涉有可能会在译入文化中成为一个突出的问题。该部分第二篇论文集中分析德国译者在翻译杰克·伦敦的《荒原的呼唤》时,对于物质文化词语的不同译法。该文认为,这种分析可以达到三个“特殊的”(distinctive)目的。其一,就同一原文而言,可以发现不同译文之间的相互关系;其二,可以揭示出译者对于原作品、原作者和翻译艺术的看法。然而,在笔者看来,这两个目的为文学翻译研究所共有,而不是文化词语译法研究所特有的。只有第三个目的方真正具有特殊性,即揭示同一文本的先后译者对于原文中社会与自然背景的不同熟悉程度。该文十分注重探讨译者由于不熟悉原文中的文化背景而偏离原文的各种现象。第三篇论文将研究焦点对准政治文化,探讨了德国译者在政治审查制度的影响下,对欧文的《瑞普·凡·温克尔》所进行的各种更改。该文证明在这一方面进行跨文化研究具有较大的优越性,因为“通过译文与原文的比较,我们可以比仅仅研究原文更为准确地估量审查制度所带来的后果”(Hulpke 1991: 74)。第四篇论文探讨德国译者在翻译马克·吐温的《田纳西州的新闻业》时,对于美式幽默的处理方式。鉴于德国和美国在对于幽默的看法上存在明显的差异,译者有意识地对原文进行了各种改动,并增加了一些原文中没有的成分,以求在德国读者中产生类似的幽默效果。值得一提的是,该部分的论文有一个共同点,即注重对描写模式的建构或对普遍规律的挖掘。作者只是将具体文本当成说明描写模式或者具有普遍意义之问题的实例。
    第三部分由三篇论文组成。第一篇论文探讨戏剧翻译中,人物名字和头衔的译法及其社会历史文化含义。该文采用历史描写的方法,对三个世纪以来法语-波兰语和波兰语-德语/英语的戏剧翻译进行了系统研究。就人物名字而言,主要有以下五种译法:1. 照搬不译;2. 根据译入文化的拼写和发音规则来同化原名;3. 用译入语的对应名字来替代原名;4. 仅翻译原名的意思(语义翻译);5. 仅传递原名所用的某种艺术手段(以反映出人物某些方面的特征)。至于人物头衔,则主要有以下几种处理方式:1. 省略;2. 添加;3. 照搬;4. 更改;5. 语义翻译;6. 替代。如该文所示,人物名字和头衔是文化身份的重要标示因素,在翻译中常常会导致两种历史语境、两种社会文化规约之间的冲突,面临这些冲突的译者不得不采取各种对策来进行处理。该部分后两篇论文均围绕可译性这一理论问题展开讨论。可以说,它们在相当大的程度上偏离了该书采用的历史描写主义的正轨。(详见Shen 1995)
    总的来说,该书展示了译学研究中历史描写方法的主要特点和作用。它揭示了译者在特定情景语境下的种种不同译法,挖掘出各种相关的社会历史文化原因。此外,还在实际分析的基础上,总结概括出具有一定普遍性和指导性的翻译程序、翻译方式、翻译原则以及研究参数。值得一提的是,该书仅对一些问题作出了揣测性的回答,不少结论也带有推测性。这反映出历史描写方法难以克服的一种局限性:今天的翻译研究者在探讨过去某个历史时期的翻译时,难免会遇上缺乏确切“事实”或第一手资料的障碍,故只能根据已知情况作出种种推测性的判断,但这些判断往往不乏洞见和启迪意义。

    三 上文提到的两本著作均具有较强的经验性。与此相对照,戈尔莱的《符号学与翻译问题》是纯理论研究的一部代表作。该书将查尔斯·S·皮尔斯的符号哲学应用于翻译理论研究。除了对皮尔斯的理论进行全面深入的阐述之外,该书还对一些具有“辅助性”或者互补性的理论进行了探讨,包括维特根斯坦的语言哲学,沃尔特·本雅明的语言理论和罗曼·雅克布森有关三种翻译的理论。这些理论均在符号学和翻译理论之间起着某种桥梁的作用。
    该书的中心主题可以用简短的一句话来概括:翻译是符号阐释过程(translation is semiosis)。符号阐释过程(semiosis)涉及三种因素:符号、该符号的所指物、该符号的阐释符号(interpretant)。“阐释符号”指阐释者在阐释原符号时,自己头脑中产生的新的符号。符号阐释过程具有开放性和无限性。第一个阐释者在对一个符号进行了阐释之后,就生成了一个新的阐释符号。第二个阐释者又可以对这个阐释符号进行阐释,从而再生成一个新的阐释符号。这个过程可以无穷无尽地延续下去,生成一个连绵不断的阐释符号的链条。也就是说,阐释过程构成一个不断生成新的意义的过程。从这个角度来观察,翻译可视为一个永无止境、不断变化的进化过程(见下文)。此外,根据皮尔斯的符号理论,阐释过程对于符号的生命至关重要。符号只有通过阐释/翻译,才会富有意义。当一个符号再也得不到阐释/翻译时,其生命就会终止。从这个角度来看,翻译的目的就不是再现原文的意思,而是体现和调动身为符号的原文的意义潜势,使其能够不断获得新的生命。
    应当指出,这个“翻译是符号阐释过程”的概念实际上具有一定的矛盾性,对译者提出了难以调和的两种不同要求。若追根溯源,则不难发现,这主要是因为这一“符号阐释过程”有两个不同的重点:或者是所指物,或者是阐释符号。当该过程以所指物为重点时,一系列翻译行为的目的就是使符号和所指物逐渐达到对等──对等就是阐释/翻译过程的终点。戈尔莱区分了三种翻译对等:指称对等(referential equivalence)、意义对等(significational equivalence)和质量对等(qualitative equivalence)。“质量对等”指译文和原文具有同样的感官或者物质特性,譬如“同样的长度、段落划分、押韵结构和/或标点选择”(Gorlee 1994:175;参见申丹1997)。就这样的翻译对等而言,可以说戈尔莱的符号学翻译理论与传统翻译理论并无多少本质区别。
    与此相对照,当这一过程以阐释符号为重点时,注意力就从翻译对等转到了如何帮助符号(原文)发展这一问题上。译文作为阐释符号,其主要任务就是帮助原文不断生长。皮尔斯说,“倘若一个符号不能把自己变成另一个发展得更为充分的符号的话,那么它就不是符号”(Gorlee 1994: 121)。同样,思想必须不断在“新的更高的翻译中生存和发展,否则它就不是真实的思想”(同上引)。根据这一进化性质的理论,译者“应该能够而且乐意破坏他们的‘传统’职责,偏离常规”,应该创造性地“通过增加来背叛[原文]”并“通过减少或者歪曲来背叛[原文]。不然的话,他们所生产的只会是呆板的直译,没有生命的复制品。假如翻译仅仅只是制造原文的影像,那么它就只会使符号阐释过程走向衰竭,因为它编织出来的是千篇一律,缺乏差异,甚至完全雷同的图案”(Gorlee 1994:195)。显而易见的是,这个以发展为宗旨的观点与上文提及的以对等为宗旨的观点互为矛盾,难以调和。在书中,这两种观点有时相互渗透,混淆不清。它们对译者提出了两种完全不同的要求,译者很可能会感到无所适从。如果说,以等值为重的观点容易为译者所接受并身体力行的话,以发展为重的观点则是相当难以付诸实施的。该书要求译者破坏他们的‘传统’职责,背叛原文,但是却没有通过任何实例来说明怎样才能完成这一任务。
    该书在相当大的程度上与翻译实践相脱节。值得注意的是,皮尔斯将翻译与同一语言内部的符号阐释等同起来,忽略了翻译这一跨语言文化的符号阐释过程的特点。戈尔莱在书中也不时表现出类似的片面性。如前所述,皮尔斯的符号阐释过程呈线性递进形态:原符号[通过阐释者的阐释]导致第一个阐释符号的诞生,后者又[通过阐释者的阐释]导致第二个阐释符号的诞生,后者又导致第三个阐释符号的诞生,如此等等。戈尔莱将这个阐释符号生成阐释符号的模式直接用于描述翻译:原文[通过译者的翻译]导致译文甲的诞生,译文甲又[通过译者的翻译]导致译文乙的诞生,译文乙又导致译文丙的诞生,如此等等。但实际上,除了通过一种中介语言的间接翻译,一位译者通常不会翻译前人的译本。无论前面已有多少译本,后面的译者还是会翻译原文。从实际情况出发,我们不妨这么描述翻译中的符号阐释过程:原文本符号[原文]导致第一个阐释符号[译文甲]的诞生;然后,[已经经过一次翻译的]原文本符号导致第二个阐释符号[译文乙]的诞生;然后,[已经经过两次翻译的]原文本符号导致第三个阐释符号[译文丙]的诞生,如此等等。此外,还应该考虑到前面的译文对后面的译文或大或小的影响。也就是说,从第二个符号阐释行为开始,我们在考虑原文本符号时,不仅要考虑原文,还需考虑已有的译文在译者阐释过程中所起的作用。(详见Shen 1996)
    总的来说,戈尔莱的《符号学与翻译问题》一书有两大长处。一是综合了各种与翻译有关的语言符号理论,将之应用于翻译理论研究,可以说这是一个可喜的跨学科研究的尝试。二是借助皮尔斯等人的有关理论,为考察翻译提供了一个新的角度,将翻译视为一个旨在帮助原文不断获取新的生命力的进化过程。但令人遗憾的是,由于不注重实际分析,该书的理论探讨有一些脱离实际之处。这是该书的一大弱点,也可谓译学的纯理论研究或大或小的一个通病。
    以上探讨的三本著作各具特色,各有其特定的分析原则、阐释框架和研究对象。通过对它们的考察,我们管中窥豹,分别看到了当今几个较有影响的译学研究派别的一些特点,看到了其不同的长处和局限性。当然,西方译学界派别繁多,研究方法纷呈不一,本文主要通过三本著作所展示的画面难免具有笼统性和片面性。但希望能够通过这样的探讨,帮助增进对西方译学研究新发展的了解。
    [英文]
    Translation of research areas in the West in recent years can be said to hold a dominant position there are two main factions : One generalized to the linguistic basis of commitment to the translation of scientific nature of the building and development experience; The other, from a historical perspective by describing the approach to the study of translation. Although both are widely divergent, but there is a conspicuous common point, that is strong empirical. a pure research and control. This paper seeks approval of three representative works of the inspection to a Limited. Translation Studies look at the two main factions in Western certain characteristics, but also some understanding of the West pure research.
    Keywords : translation, new developments were made
    Recent Developments in Translation Studies as Seen from Three Representative Books Published in the 1990’s Dan SHEN
    Abstract: In the field of translation studies, despite the existence of multiple approaches, two trends of development seem to have been dominating in recent years: one based on linguistics in the wide sense; the other marked by a historical-descriptive orientation. While the two trends of development are contrastive with each other, they share one thing in common, namely, both being essentially empirical, forming a contrast to translation studies with a somewhat ‘purely’ theoretical orientation. The present paper offers a discussion of some recent developments in the field by way of reviewing three representative books published in the 1990’s. Through the present review, we may get a glimpse not only of the characteristics of the two major trends of development, but also of certain features of the theoretical versus the empirical orientation. Key words: translation studies, developments, representative books
    Since the early 1980s of the 20th century, the rapid progress in translation studies. If Western Translation Studies in the 1960s and 1970s was largely attributed to the rapid development of the rapid development of Linguistics, In the past two decades, cultural studies, literature, anthropology, information science, cognitive science, Generalized psychology and linguistics and so on the subject of translation played a larger role in the development (see Gentzle r 1993, elastin & Shreve 1992). Although the translation of a scene vary, but in recent years can be said to hold a dominant position there are two main factions : One generalized to the Linguistics (especially text linguistics and textual analysis), based committed to the translation of scientific nature of the building and development experience; The other, from a historical perspective by describing the approach to the study of translation. The intention is to reveal the translation contained in the study and practice of cultural and political factors (see Venuti, 1997).

    This paper published in the 1990s through the 20th century translation of the three Western representative study tour look at the development of some new features in translation studies. These three books were Description HATIM (Basil Hatim), "written by cross-cultural communication : Text Translation Theory and Comparative Linguistics, "(1997); Harold Kittel (Harald Kittel) and Amin Frank (Armin Frank ), editor-in-chief of "cross-cultural translation of the History and Literature" (1991); DING Da Gorlee (Dinda Gorlee) "written translation and Semiotics" (1994). On the three books, HATIM book can be regarded as the first major study groups mentioned above, the typical book Frank Kittel and is the second-largest faction in the party, however, were made. While this is entirely different from the two major parties, but there is a conspicuous common point, that is strong empirical. In contrast with Gorlee "Semiotics and the Translation," a book is pure research representatives. Three books by this investigation, we can not only a Limited. Translation Studies today to see the two major factions of the West, some features pure research but also some understanding of the West.

    1
    A two decades, Contrastive Linguistics, Translation and Text Linguistics has made considerable progress, But these three studies combined with the theory is still rare. HATIM the "cross-cultural communication," a book of the laudable efforts made in this respect (see Shen 1999). HATIM discourse in the book dealing with a theoretical model. It contains context, the three most organizations discourse structure and discourse. Discussion in context, HATIM adopt the language field theory (the theory of register). But learning to use language and semiotics (mainly intended for research) is also included in the Register analysis,HATIM that "Conventionality Communication" (T Institutional Communicative ransaction) "Pragmatic" (Pragmatic Action) and the "symbolic interactionism" (I Semiotic nteraction) Context components for the three types of discourse, Discourse discourse structure and play a decisive role. He cited the model as a framework, between the English and Arabic translation of the analysis of text types, Text discourse structure and organization of the system. Discourse on the type, HATIM explanation and demonstration of cultural distinction between the two categories. On the structure of the text, paragraphs divided mainly HATIM, embedded in the main text of the role of the sub-text of the topic. As for the text, HATIM discussed that the main text, Inc., the convergence between the sentence means Direct and Indirect Speech other factors. Copies of the author's discourse on the mode of treatment after full discussion, and broaden the scope, In view of the relationship between text types and politeness strategy. how to deal with two different cultures from the non-fiction text, and how to translate the texts of the issues constituents Irony discussion.
    Overall, the book has the following characteristics : (1) a large number of Linguistics and Translation Studies based on the theory of a similar theory, a theoretical model for the book center layer to promote discussion, it is systemic. (2) In contrast with the traditional theory of linguistic translation, the book stressed the role of situational context. For example, Chapter 11 of the discourse in the language of emotional expression means, and focus on power relationships and ideological implications. (3) the book is to explore the level of discourse over this type of sentence, discourse and discourse, and the interaction between the three levels of concern (see Nord 1991). (4) The book focusing on the translation of the overall strategy. For example, to examine the direct / indirect quotation, HATIM write news reports that the Arabs are accustomed indirect quotation. English press reports on the direct quotations translated into Arabic, the translator should adopt an indirect or "semi-direct" in the form of this function can achieve in such rhetoric. Because of these characteristics, the book reveals a better mechanism for the combination of text and some of the important process of communication, Translation Studies to provide a lot of new insights. As Neubert and Schleif said, the text will be translated to other models based on linguistics, "the level of discourse and communication. rather than sentences and vocabulary level. " So for Translation Studies provided "more powerful than the sentence linguistic analysis tools"
    Worth mentioning is that the book is not only committed to comparative linguistics and applied linguistics text translation, Translation Studies and tested by using these two languages, and rich schools. At this point, it is different from the model as a tool for translation only to study linguistics. The book proved "conducting comparative analysis, if not impossible to achieve on the basis of complete words. Similarly, Discourse Analysis based on the comparative lack of integrity will be hard to reach. Language translation is the most applicable comparison with the research framework. "
    2
    Since the 1980s the 20th century by the tide of cultural studies, translation study of the history and culture have received increasing attention. Worth mentioning is that the model based on the translation and linguistics to study in contrast, Descriptive methods using historical research in general is concerned only with the translation of literary texts. Frank Kittel and the book "History of Literary Translation and Cross-cultural studies" is the new trend of Translation Studies representative. Epic roots are German, the author of this collection of literary translation Research Center scholar. The book consists of three parts. The first part contains three papers focused on the German in the 18th century, French works indirectly through the intermediary will be translated into English and German translation. The first paper, based on the French language and cultural impact : the size of France and Germany translator for the different attitudes will indirectly translate English novel translated into four categories, causing them to explore in depth the reasons for the differences between, this reveals the complexity of cultural translation of the 18th century in Germany. The second paper argues that examples : Although the literary translation in French intermediary had disappeared around 1770. But in the nature and scope of non-fiction texts, which indirectly translation has continued to the 18th century. The two are not synchronous to the cause of the various historical and cultural reasons for the analysis and study. Title III of papers devoted to a French translation of the German intermediary Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. This paper analyzes the different translation of Franklin's autobiography, which contains the different characteristics and significance excavation and the resulting characteristics of these different ideologies, aesthetic and cultural aspects of the dynamics.
    Discussion on the second part of the U.S.-German translation and the cultural differences in dealing with the different translation. Four integral part of the thesis. First concentrate on T. S. Eliot's "Waste Land" of the French and German translations in different times. The building is composed of a number of parameters in the model. The cultural ramifications for the original description (cultural references), and asked for the translator These cultural factors at the moment. Mainly in the following six parameters : 1. cultural ramifications of clarity (from the most delicate cultural connotations beyond doubt that the cultural stereotypes); 2. scope (or belonging to a special, a certain class or belong to a particular country or culture with universal); 3. character (religion, literature, art, sports, lifestyle, etc.); 4. Historical Dimension (located in the specific historical and cultural ramifications period) 5. Text types; 6. or nature of integration (to what extent cultural ramifications for financial integration with the works). This parameter analysis of six different translator and cultural ramifications of the "wilderness" of the different translation provide a practical framework. However, the article pointed out that other literature or other works : / language / cultural translation studies, according to the actual situation may need to add a new parameter or derogate from the established parameters. In addition, the parameters of a scene Context is very important in another context might become insignificant scenes. Similarly, the gap between cultures. Cultural resources in the most unimaginative in the cultural ramifications may be translated into Chinese culture has become a prominent issue. German papers concentrate on the second part of the translator to translate Jack London's "Call of the Wilderness", Translation for the different material and cultural terms. The view that this analysis can be achieved three "special" (distinctive) purpose. First, in terms of the same text can be found : the interrelationship between different; Second, Translator for the original works can be revealed, the depth and translation art. However, I think that these two purposes for a total of Literary Translation Institute and the Institute of Translation is not unique cultural expressions. Only third objective will truly have their peculiarities has revealed that the same version of the translator for the original familiar with the different social and natural background levels. The translator attaches great importance to study because they are not familiar with the original text from the cultural background of various phenomena. Title III thesis research focused political culture, explore the impact of German translator in the political system under review, Owen to the "Rip Van Winkle" for the change. This paper shows that cross-cultural research in this area is low, because "to the original and asked, We can be more accurate than just original research review system to evaluate the consequences "(1991 Hulpke : 74). Title IV of German translator to translate papers of Mark Twain's "Tennessee journalism", For American humorous manner. In view of Germany and the United States for the apparent difference in the views of humor, Translator conscious of the various changes to the original text, and not to increase the number of original compositions readers have a similar view in Germany humorous effects. Worth mentioning is that the part of the papers have a common ground, that is focusing on the description of the structure or model of the universal laws of the excavation. The author shows only describe as a specific text mode or universal significance of the case.
    Three papers from the third component. Translation of the first papers to explore drama, the characters and the name and title of the translation of social history and cultural meaning. In this paper describes the history, of the three centuries since the French-Polish and Polish-German / English translation of a theater system. Names on the figures, mainly in the following five Translation : 1. Copy not been translated; 2. According to the translation into the spelling and pronunciation rules to cultural assimilation version 3. translated into the corresponding language used to replace its current name; 4. Originally meant only translation (semantic translation); 5. Originally only used in the transmission of certain artistic methods (some figures to reflect the characteristics). As the title characters, mainly the following way : 1. Ellipsis 2. Add 3. 4 copy. Change; 5. Semantic Translation 6. alternative. If the text below, the name and title of people's cultural identity is an important marker, Translation often lead to two in the historical context, both social and cultural conflict between the statutes. Translator facing these conflicts have taken various measures to deal with them. After two papers on the part of both the theoretical discussion of the issue translatability. It can be said that they are a very large extent that it deviates from the book describing the history of the track.
    Overall, the book display describing the history of Translation Studies, the main features and functions. It reveals a translator in the context of specific scenes by various translation and tapping all the relevant social, historical and cultural reasons. In addition, based on the analysis of actual, summed up with certain universality and procedures guiding the translation, translation, Translation of research principles and parameters. Worth mentioning is that the book is only a hypothetical answer certain questions, many of its conclusions are also somewhat speculative. This reflects a historical description of the method are difficult to overcome limitations : Today's researchers to explore the past to translate the translation of a historical period, will unavoidably lack of a firm "facts" or first-hand information on the obstacles, it is known only in the light of the judgment made all kinds of conjecture, but these judgments are always some insights and inspiration.
    3
    The two books mentioned above have strong empirical. In contrast with Gorlee "Semiotics and the Translation" is a representative of pure research. Charles S Pierce book will be used to translate the theoretical study of philosophy and symbols. In addition to a comprehensive and in-depth exposition of the theory Pierce, The book to have a "complementary" or complementary theories in the paper, including Wittgenstein's philosophy of language. Walter Benjamin's theory of language and translation of the Roman Jacobsen of the three theories. Semiotics theories in translation theory and the role of a bridge between some plays.
    The central theme of the book can be briefly summarized in a sentence : Symbol explained the process of translation (translation is semiosis). Symbol explained the process (semiosis) involves three factors : symbols, symbols of the material referred to. Symbols of the symbols (interpretant). "Symbol explained," we explained in the original elaborate symbols, their minds that a new symbol. Symbol explained the process is open and infinite nature. The first interpretation in the interpretation of a symbol, on the formation of a new interpretation of symbols. The second interpretation of those symbols can explain to this interpretation, thereby generating a new interpretation of symbols. Unlimited extension of this process can go on to form a continuous chain to explain the symbols. In other words, to explain the significance of the process to constitute a new generation in the process. From the angle of observation, the translation can be regarded as a never-ending, ever-changing process of evolution (see below). In addition, under the symbol Pierce theory to explain the process for the vital signs of life. Only through symbolic interpretation / translation will be meaningful. When a symbol could not explain / translation, his life would come to an end. From this perspective, the purpose of the translation is not reappearance of the original meaning. but to mobilize and potential significance as a symbol of the text, to enable it to gain new life.
    It should be noted that the "symbols to explain the process of translation is" in contradiction with the concept of fact, Translator made it difficult to reconcile the two different requirements. If Tracing the source, it is easy to see that this is mainly because of the "symbols to explain the process of" two different points : or referring to objects or symbols to explain. When referring to the process to focus on objects, the purpose is to make the translation series of symbols and the meaning of such material is gradually explained to the other ── / translation of the end of the process points. Gorlee distinguished translation of the other three : on the other allegations (referential equivalence). significance of the other (significational equivalence) and the quality of the other (qu'en alitative equivalence). "Quality of other" means : the original and have the same sensory or physical characteristics, such as "the same length of paragraphs division rhyme structure and / or punctuation choice "(see Shen Dan Gorlee 1994:175; 1997). On the translation of this in terms of semiotics Gorlee translation theory can be said with little or no essential difference between the traditional translation.
    And the contrast, when focusing on the process to explain the symbols, focus on how to help, such as translation of the symbols (sic) the development of this issue. Yes, as explained symbols, and its main task is to help the growth of the original text. Pierce said, "if not a symbol to more fully develop themselves into another symbol, then So it should not sign "
    Similarly, we must keep thinking of "new and higher translation survival and development Otherwise, it would not be true of thinking "(Ibid). According to the theory of the evolutionary nature of the translator, "they should be able and willing to destroy the 'traditional' duties deviated from the conventional " to be creative "to betrayal by increasing [sic]" and "betrayed by reducing or to distort [sic]. Otherwise, the , they will be produced by the rigid literal. No copies of life. If the translation is merely creating original images, then it will only symbols to explain the process to failure, because it is woven stereotyped, the lack of difference even identical patterns "It is evident that the development of the views of the above-mentioned purposes, such as to the purpose of mutually contradictory viewpoints. difficult to reconcile. In the book, these two viewpoints sometimes infiltrating the confusion. They put on two completely different translator, the translator is likely to be at a loss. If, equivalent to the views of the translators are easy to accept and take action, then in the view of the development is quite difficult to put into practice. Asked the translator to undermine their book 'traditional' duties, betraying the original. But there is no any examples to illustrate how to accomplish this task.
    Book, a very large extent with the translation is divorced from practice. It is worth noting that Pierce will be the same language translation and interpretation of symbols to equate internal, neglected inter-language translation of this elaborate process of the cultural symbols. Gorlee book is not displayed in a similar one-sidedness. As mentioned above, the symbol Pierce explained the process of linear form, Inc. : Symbol explained by the [original] interpretation of the symbols lead to the birth of the first interpretation, the latter is explained by the [lead] to explain the birth of a second to explain symbols, The latter led to the birth of the third elaborate symbols, and so on. Gorlee elaborate symbols of this generation model to explain the symbols used to describe a direct translation : Translator caused by the [original] : A translation of birth asked the translator to translate [A] also resulted in the birth : B, B : : C led to the birth, and so on. But in fact, except indirectly through an intermediary language translation of a previous version of the translator is usually not translated. No matter how many there are in front of translation, as the translation of the original translator or will. Proceeding from the actual situation, we may so describe the translation of the symbols to explain the process : Original lead the symbol [sic] : [A] a symbol to explain the birth; Then, [original] have read a translation of the symbols lead to a second interpretation : [B] symbols of birth; Then, [translation] already twice the original interpretation of the symbols lead to the third symbol [C] : birth, and so on. In addition, consideration should also be given to the rear to the front asked : big or small impact. In other words, the interpretation of symbols from the second act, we consider the original symbols, we should consider not only the original, already asked the translator to explain the need to consider the role played by the process.
    Overall, Gorlee "Semiotics and the Translation," a book has two main strengths. First, a comprehensive theory of various symbols relating to the translation of the language, translation theory be applied, It can be said this is a welcome attempt to interdisciplinary research. Second, using the theory of Pierce and others, to provide a new translation for the inspection point. will be considered with a view to helping to translate the original continually gaining new vitality in the evolutionary process. But unfortunately, do not pay attention to the actual analysis, the book's theory about some divorced from reality. This is a major weakness of the book, and also the pure research translation of a major or minor defects.
    The above three books explore unique, and each has its own specific analysis, interpretation and the framework of the study. Through their investigation, a Limited. see today were some of the more influential faction of Translation Studies features see their different strengths and limitations. Naturally, Western scholars translated numerous factions, with numerous different research methods. This paper mainly through three books have generally shown in the picture is inevitable and one-sidedness. It is hoped to explore through the help of the West to enhance the knowledge of new developments in Translation Studies.
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