如何英语演讲及演讲技巧
    Category: 英语演讲  Clicks: 1736  Top: 10  Update Date: 2008/09/13
Summary:1. 演讲前的准备 准备是搞好演讲的前提。首先是要确立一个题目或一个话题。一般演讲赛都分为命题演讲和即兴演讲。如要进行演讲比赛则必须对各个方面加以准备:政治、经济、文化、教育等,找好立意点,拟定题目,如政治方面的演讲主题:WTO、统一、和平与发展、机遇与挑战;经济方面演讲主题:西部大开发、农村经济、再就业;教育方面演讲方题:中西方教育的不同、远程教育、终身教育、枪手;文化方面演讲主题:文化的交流.

  • 1. 演讲前的准备 准备是搞好演讲的前提。首先是要确立一个题目或一个话题。一般演讲赛都分为命题演讲和即兴演讲。如要进行演讲比赛则必须对各个方面加以准备:政治、经济、文化、教育等,找好立意点,拟定题目,如政治方面的演讲主题:WTO、统一、和平与发展、机遇与挑战;经济方面演讲主题:西部大开发、农村经济、再就业;教育方面演讲方题:中西方教育的不同、远程教育、终身教育、枪手;文化方面演讲主题:文化的交流与融合、校园文化;环保方面演讲主题:man and nature;科技方面演讲主题:网络、克隆、基因;卫生方面演讲主题:keep physically and mentally healthy;体育方面演讲主题:Olympics……有些方面题目太大,可从多角度和多侧面思考,找好切入点,将题目细化和具体化,写出演讲稿的提纲,构思和组织演讲稿结构。 拟定好话题后的第二步就是演讲材料的收集与整理。其中最好的方法就是有计划地阅读大量的英语原文以及各类英语报刊杂志,阅读是一个循序渐进的过程,同时也是培养英语思维的过程,对提高英语的口头表达能力和书面表达能力是至关重要的。利用有关资源与材料(如图书、报刊、杂志或网络资源等)收集所需的内容。然后对材料加以整理或进行梳理,舍弃不太重要的内容或用不上的材料,准备写演讲稿。 2 演讲稿的写作 演讲稿首先开头要开门见山,既要一下子抓住听众又要提出你的观点,中间要用各种方法和所准备的材料说明、支持你的论点,感染听众,然后在结尾加强说明论点或得出结论,结束演讲。 演讲稿的写作有严格的要求,就内容而言要主题鲜明,表达完整;就文章组织结构而言要思维清晰,逻辑性强;就语言而言要有感染力、形象生动。写作时可根据需要有效、正确地使用英语写作方法和技巧,如恰当地运用明喻、暗喻、夸张等各种修辞方法,用词要准确,尽量避免使用生僻、模糊、晦涩的字词。总之,要考虑听众对象,注意演讲的措辞,但又要简明扼要、有理有力、结构紧凑。许多著名的演说家的不朽之作都有振奋人心、扭转乾坤般的力量。从马丁.路德.金的“I have a dream”,美国总统林肯所作的著名的盖茨堡演说,到克林顿在北大的演说,不少句子都成为不朽的佳句,值得认真研读. 3进行演讲 具备演讲的知识和技巧,演讲稿的完成只是演讲的序幕,要进行成功的演讲则要进行严格的训练。训练时,分析演讲要领,训练演讲技巧和姿势语,观看CCTV杯和爱立信杯等英语演讲的录像,了解并按照比赛评分标准进行严格的模拟训练,观察演讲过程是否具备以下特点:主题鲜明,表达完整(演讲内容);思维清晰,逻辑性强(文章组织结构);感情充沛,富有表现力(演讲气势);发音正确,语音语调标准(英语语音);反应敏捷,回答准确(心理素质);着装整洁,仪态大方等等。 除此之外,还要有良好的心理素质。多进行模拟演讲,有良好的心理素质,才能更好地表现自己,取得演讲的良好效果。有的同学能讲一口地道的美式英语,但由于缺乏良好的心理素质而怯场,甚至在比赛中紧张得说不出话来或有一些不良的举止而被淘汰出局。 有了充分的准备,进行演讲就不太难了。在演讲的整个过程中还要注意一些演讲的要领与技巧,如演讲者与听众目光的接触(eye contact),声音的抑扬顿挫(vocal variety),和肢体语言的配合(hand gestures and body language)等等,但要恰当,不要太多,否则会喧宾夺主,影响演讲效果。 掌握了这些要领,有了充分的知识储备,再加上良好的心理素质,一定会成功的 .
    演讲技巧 No,nos in public speaking 演讲切忌 Talking too rapidly; 语速太快; Speaking in a monotone; 声音单调; Using too high a vocal pitch; 声音尖细; Talking and not saying much; “谈”得太多,说得太少; Presenting without enough emotion or passion; 感情不充分; Talking down to the audience; 对观众采取一种居高临下的姿态; Using too many "big" words; 夸张的词语使用得太多; Using abstractions without giving concrete examples; 使用抽象概念而不给出事例加以说明; Using unfamiliar technical jargon; 使用别人不熟悉的技术术语; Using slang or profanity; 使用俚语或粗俗语; Disorganized and rambling performance; 演讲无组织,散乱无序; Indirect communication i.e. beating around the bush; 说话绕弯子,不切中主题; -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How to communicate with the audience 怎样与听众交流 A message worth communicating; 要有值得交流的观点; Gain the listeners' atention: capture their interest and build their trust; 引起听众的注意:抓住他们的兴趣并赢得信任; Emphasize understanding; 重视理解; Obtain their feedback; 获得反馈; Watch your emotional tone; 注意声调要有感情; Persuade the audience; 说服听众; -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How to gain confidence 怎样变得自信 Smile and glance at the audience; 微笑并看着观众; Start very slowly, with your shoulders back and your chin up; 开始发言时要慢一点,身体保持昂首挺胸的姿态; Open your speech by saying something very frankly; 开场白说一些真诚话; Wear your very best clothes; 穿上自己最好的衣服; Say something positive to yourself; 对自己说一些积极的话; -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Four objectives of the speech 演讲的四个目标 To offer information; 提供信息; To entertain the audience; 使听众感到乐趣; To touch emotions; 动之以情; To move to action; 使听众行动起来; -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How to organize the speech 怎样组织演讲 To have a structure: such as first, second, third; geographically, north, south, east, west; compare and contrasts; our side versus their side; negative and positive; 要有一个结构:可以分一二三点;可以从地理上分东南西北;比较与对比;我方与他方;正面与反面; To label the materials such as jokes, funny anecdotes, favorite sayings, interesting statistics; 将材料归类整理,如笑话、趣事、名人名言、有趣的数据; To use notecards; 使用卡片; -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How to use cards 怎样使用卡片 Number your cards on the top right; 在卡片的右上角标上数字; Write a complete sentence on both your first and last card; 在第一张和最后一张上写上完整的句子; Write up to five key words on other cards; 其他卡片上最多只能写五个关键词; Use color to mark the words you want to emphasize; 用颜色来标记你想强调的词; Remind yourself at a particular sport to check the time. 在某一处提醒自己查看时间。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How to cope with brownout 如何对付忘词 Just smile and go to the next card. Not the one in front of you, but to the next following. Look at the first word on it. This will be the point from which you will now continue. Of course you missed part of your speech. But nobody will notice it. They will blame themselves for not following your thoughts. 只需要微微一笑,继续下一张卡片上的内容,不是摆在你目前的那张卡片,而是下一张。看一下卡片上的第一个单词,这就是你要继续的要点。当然你会遗漏一部分内容,但是没有人会注意到这一点。听众只会责怪自己没有跟上你的思路。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How to begin 如何开头 To tell a story (about yourself); 讲个(自己的)故事; To acknowledge the occasion of the gathering; 对大家能够聚在一起表示感谢; To pay the listeners a compliment; 称赞一下听众; To quote ; 引用名人名言; To use unusual statistics; 使用一些不平常的数据; To ask the audience a challenging question; 问观众一个挑战性的问题; To show a video or a slide. 播放录像带或看幻灯片。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How to close 如何结尾 To repeat your opening; 重复你的开头; To summarize your presentation; 概括你的演讲; To close with an anecdote; 以趣事结尾; To end with a call to action; 以号召行动结尾; To ask a rhetorical question; 以反问结尾; To make a statement; 以一个陈述句结尾; To show an outline of your presentation. 展示演讲大纲。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eye contact 眼神交流 Move your eyes slowly from person to person, and pause two or three seconds with each listener; 眼睛慢慢地从一个移动到另一个人,在每一个人身上停留两到三秒钟时间; Look at people straight or look at the bridge of their noses or chins; 眼睛直视听众,或看着他们的鼻梁或下巴 Look for the friendlier faces and smile at them one by one, then move on to the more skeptical members and smile at them one by one also; 找到那些看起来比较友善的听众,逐次朝他们微笑;然后目标转向那些有些怀疑的听众,也逐渐朝他们微笑; Imagine the audience in bathrobes in case you are nervous. 如果你感到紧张,不妨想象听众都穿着浴衣的样子。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How to use the microphone 如何使用话筒 You must speak up and project your voice even if you are using a microphone; 即使是用话筒,也要声音响亮并运气发声; Your voice should be resonant and sustained when you speak; 声音要有回声并能稍持续一阵儿; Pitch your voice slightly lower than normal. Listeners tend to associate credibility and authority with a relatively deep voice; 音调要定得比正常讲话时低一些,听众往往把可信度与权威性与一个相对低沉的声音联系在一起; Try to end declarative sentences on a low tone without, however, trailing off in volume; 尽量用降调结束陈述句,但不要减弱音量; Slow down. 放慢语速。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Keynote speech 基调发言 A Keynote speech is to outline the subjects to be addressed by other speakers at an event,and to establish the tone of a meeting or program. 基调发言也称主题演讲,目的就是限定一个集会上其他演讲者演讲的主题,奠定一个会议或活动的基调。基调发言也直接关系到确立大会的感情基调。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What to say 演讲指南 Plan well in advance; 预先计划好; Make sure you fully understand your role in the program; 保证自己充分了解在活动中的角色; Devote care to structuring your speech logically; 认真地构思演讲,使其结构符合逻辑; Devote care to setting the proper tone. 认真设定适当的基调。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How to use equipment 如何使用设备 Check light bulbs,electrical power,cable connections,outlets and contacts,switches and any moving parts; 检查电灯、电源、线路的连接、插座和触电、开关以及一些移动部件 Confirm twice that all your equipment will be available on the time of the day that you need it ; 保证设备能在你使用那天正常工作,至少要确认两次; Arrange to have back-up equipment close by and be prepared to present without visuals; 准备一些后备设备以防万一,并做好没有图像资料仍能演讲的准备; Remember to carry your equipment and ensure it will not be lost. 记得带上所需要用的设备,不要弄丢了。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Typical signals of nervousness 紧张的典型特征 Hands in pockets 手放在口袋里 Increased blinking of the eyes 眨眼次数过多; Failure to make eye contact害怕眼神的接触; Licking and biting of the lips 舔嘴唇和史嘴唇; Finger tapping 敲叩手指; Fast,jerky gestures 手势又急又快; Cracking voices 粗哑的声音 Increased rate of speech 讲话速度加快; Clearing of the throat 清嗓子; Buttocks clamped tightly together 臀部崩得紧紧的; The way to over come nervousness is breathe in deep and breathe out slowly for some times. 克服紧张的办法是调匀呼吸,深吸气,慢呼出。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HOW to dress 如何穿着得体 Dark colored suits or dresses; 穿深色西装; Red ties or scarves; 空朴素的白衬衫或上衣; Black shoes,freshly polished; 戴红色的领带或丝巾; Very little jewelry -worn discreetly; 穿刚刚擦亮的黑色鞋子; Calm,slow gestures and slow movements; 尽量不戴首饰,要戴的话要非常小心; Shoulders back,chin up. 挺胸抬头。 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HOW to use gestures 如何使有手势 Make sure all your gestures are smooth and natural; 所有的动作都应该流畅自然; Don't put your hands in your pockets; 不要把手插在口袋里; Let your hands and arms drop naturally to your side ,gently fold both indes fingers together,without wringing or gripping your hands in any way; 将手和手臂自然地在身体两侧下垂,轻微屈起食指,不要扭在一起或紧握拳头; Let your hands do what they want to do as long as they don't go back into your pockets or make obscene gestures. 手想要怎样就让它怎样,直到它不再回到你的口袋或在听众面前做一些惹人讨厌的手势。 Point at imaginary objects and don't point at others with your index finger; 手可以指点着假想的物体,不要用食指指着别人; Size or quantity can also easily be shown by expanding or contracting the hands; 心寸的大小和数量的多少也可以通过两手的扩张和收缩来演示; Gracefully show your audience the appropriate number of fingers by holding your hands at a 45 degree angle from your head; 手抬起并与头成四十五度角,优雅地用手势表示出数字; TO emphasize physical size such as length,width,hold your hands out in front you widely apart to move them up and down. 如果想要强调长度尺寸的大小,将两手伸向前方,尽量分开,并上下移动。
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