高二英语要点辅导:Unit 22
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Summary:The music they are playing sounds so exciting . ( 现在分词 ) 注:一般来讲,动名词 ( 短语 ) 作表语,主表可互换,即:Playing all kinds of music is our job .现在分词作表语,表明主语的性质和特征,主表不可互换。2 . - ing形式做定语可以表示1 ) 所修饰名词的用途。如:a waiting room.

  • The music they are playing sounds so exciting . ( 现在分词 ) 注:一般来讲,动名词 ( 短语 ) 作表语,主表可互换,即:Playing all kinds of music is our job .现在分词作表语,表明主语的性质和特征,主表不可互换。2 . - ing形式做定语可以表示1 ) 所修饰名词的用途。如:a waiting room ( = a room for waiting ) 候车室a walking stick ( = a stick for walking ) 手杖a sleeping car ( = a car for sleeping ) 卧车2 ) 所修饰名词正在进行的动作,可以换成定语从句形式。如:a waiting man ( = a man who is waiting ) 正等待着的男人a sleeping child ( = a child who is sleeping ) 正睡觉的孩子a walking man ( = a man who is walking ) 正散步的男人3 . 在see , hear , feel , watch , notice等感观动词后可以用 - ing形式做宾语补足语。这时 - ing形式和句子的宾语之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系,并且 - ing形式表示宾语正在进行的动作。如:He saw a girl getting on the tractor . ( = He saw a girl and the girl was getting on the tractor . ) 他看见一个女孩在往拖拉机上爬。Do you hear someone knocking at the door? 有人敲门你听见了吗?单元重点词汇点拨1 . familiar意为“世所周知,熟悉的;看惯的,听惯的,耳熟的”,其后通常跟介词to连用。例如:a familiar face / voice熟悉的脸 / 声音His name is familiar to me , but I haven’t met him . These tales are familiar to Chinese children . familiar还可以表示“ ( 某人 ) 熟悉 ( 某事 ) 的,精通……的,通晓……的”,其后通常可以跟介词with连用。例如:He is more familiar with modern jazz than I . I am not familiar with the names of plants . 通过以上例句我们可以看出:①事物当主语时,作“为人所熟悉”解,与to连用;但人当主语时,作“熟悉某事物”解时,则与with连用。又如:Alpine plants are familiar to him . ( = He is familiar with alpine plants . ) ②人当主语而与with连用时,with之后若接事物的话就是“熟悉”之意,若接人的话就变成了“亲密”之意,但这个“亲密”往往很容易变成“亲昵、放肆”。2 . marry用作动词,意为“结婚;嫁,娶,与……结婚”,其名词形式为marriage , 形容词形式为married。例如:He married a classmate from high school . Kate married a Frenchman last year . He married his daughter to a doctor . Mr Smith married Miss Kate five years ago . 另外,短语be married ( to ) 意为“与……结婚,嫁给”;get marred ( to ) 意为“与……结婚,嫁给……”;marry sb . to意为“把……嫁给……”。例如:The old couple have already been married for fifty years . She has got married to a man from her hometown . They married their youngest daughter to a man with a lot of money . 3 . perform用作动词,意为“执行,完成,做;演出,表演”。例如:They computer performs these calculations with surprising speed . The surgeon was performed a dangerous operation . The singer had never performed in Beijing before . He will be performing on the flute tonight . 4 . praise可用作及物动词,意为“赞扬,表扬”,例如:He was praised for his good works . They praised him for risking his life to save his comrade . He was praised for finishing his work ahead of time . praise还可以用作名词,意为“赞扬;赞扬的话 ( 用复数 ) ”。例如:My books received high praise from general readers . The teacher‘s praise had greatly encouraged us . The praise of mine usually made the students feel very happy . 5 . nowadays用作副词,表示与以前相比,意为“时下;现今”,常与一般现在时动词连用。例如:Nowadays a lot of people go abroad . Nowadays young people prefer watching TV to reading books . They used to read novels , but nowadays they read newspapers . 单元词组思维运用1 . in praise of意为“称赞,赞扬 ( = to praise ) ”。例如:He made a report in praise of country life . We all spoke in praise of the boy’s courage and bravery . 2 . learn … by heart意为“记住;背诵”。例如:I have learned the reading materials by heart . Have you learned by heart the main points of the article?It‘s very difficult for the children to learn the poem by heart . 3 . earn one’s living意为“谋生;挣钱”。例如:He had to earn his living at the his early age . The fishermen earned their living by fishing . Some people earn their living by writing stories . 4 . play the guitar / piano / violin / flute , 英语中表示乐器的名词前通常要用定冠词。I used to play the flute after school , but I usually operate the computer at present . She couldn‘t learn to play the piano quite well without a teacher . Which can you play better , the guitar or the flute?The lady often enjoyed herself by playing the violin after supper 单元难点疑点思路明晰1 . I’d prefer them not to play too loudly at the beginning . 我宁愿让他们开始时别那么大声演奏。prefer宁愿……,喜欢…… ( 甚于喜欢 ) prefer sb . to do sth . 宁可 ( 某人 ) 做某事 ( 不定式作宾补 ) They preferred their son to go to college . They preferred her not to go with them . prefer sth . / doing to sth . / doing喜欢……而不喜欢prefer tea to coffee . I prefer reading novels to watching TV . prefer to do… rather than do … 宁愿…而不愿…I prefer to go to the movies rather than stay home . = I prefer going to the movies to staying home . = I would rather go to the movies than stay home . 2 . Otherwise we won‘t be able to hear ourselves talk . 否则我们就听不到自己讲话的声音了。( 1 ) otherwise ( corj ) 否则,不然, = or = or else . Hurry up , otherwise you’ll be late . Don‘t move , otherwise I’ll shoot you . ( 2 ) hear sb . do sth . 听某人做某事不定式作宾补省to的动词可按下面顺口溜记忆。五看,三使役,二听,一感,半帮助,不定式作宾补,to字要删去,主动变被动,宾补变主补,to字要恢复。五看:see , watch , notice , look at , observe ; 三使役:have , let , make ; 二听:hear , listen to ; 一感觉:feel ; 半帮助:helpI saw Xiao Li enter the room just now . →Xiao Li was seen to enter the room just now . help my mother ( to ) do some housework . →My mother is helped to do some housework . 3. Folk music has been passed down from one generation to another .In this way stories were passed on from one person to another . pass down / on传下去,传授,传给The news was passed on / down by word of mouth . The teachers pass on their knowledge to the students . pass by经历pass over不重视pass through经历、穿过等4. On festivals they used to act and sing in praise of heroes who lived long ago .It plays an important part in people‘s lives , especially for work , and at festivals and weddings…它在人们的生活中起着重要的作用,特别是为了劳动,以及在节日和婚礼上…on festivals at festivals在节日。如果指节日当天,应用on 。 on Christmas Day圣诞节那天on Christmas Eve圣诞节前夕on New Year’s Day元旦那天on Children‘s Day在儿童节那天。但如果把节日视作一个时节,指节日的整个时期,则应用at。 at Christmas在圣诞节期间at New Year新年期间。in praise of意为“赞扬”The leader spoke in praise of the man who had given his life for the cause . 领袖称赞那位为事业而捐躯的人。介词in + n . + of常见短语in front of在……前面in spite of尽管,虽然in charge of负责in favour of支持……,赞成…… in face of面对……,在……面前in search of寻找5. India produces more films than any other country in the world . 印度摄制的影片比世界上任何其它国家都多。= India produces the most films in the world . ※用比较级表达最高级的意义。Xiao Li is taller than any other student in our class . = Xiao Li is the tallest student in our class . 小李比我们班其它同学都高。( other后的名词应用单数形式 ) 。比较级应注意避免和包括自身的对象比。比较级 + than + any other + 单数名词比较级 + than + all the other + 复数名词比较级 + than + anyone elseMary is taller than any other student in the class . Mary is taller than any other girl in the class . Mary is taller than anyone else in the class . Mary is taller than all the boys in the class . 三、智能显示【心中有数】单元语法发散思维非谓语作定语的区别动名词、分词和不定式都能作定语,它们在用法上区别如下:※ 动名词作定语只表示被修饰词的用途,不定式作定语通常表示未来的动作或含情态意味,现在分词作定语表示正在发生的动作或存在的状态,过去分词表示已经完成的动作或无时间性的行为。This is a sleeping car . (动名词作定语表示用途,它可转换为:This is a car for sleeping . )A sleeping child is in the room . (现在分词的主动形式作定语表示一个正在进行的动作,它可转换成:A child who is sleeping is in the room . )The bike being repaired now is mine . (现在分词的被动形式,表示正在进行的动作,它可转换成:The bike which is being repaired now is mine . )I‘m not sure which is the road leading to the hospital . (现在分词短语不表示正在进行的动作而表示存在的状态,它可转换成:I’m not sure which is the road that leads to the hospital . )The fallen leaves . (过去分词表示一个完成的动作,The leaves that have fallen . )I have two letters to write . (不定式表示将来的动作)※ 不定式作定语,一般只能放在被修饰词之后,分词作定语即可放在被修饰词之前,也可以放在被修饰词之后;通常单个的词放前,短语放在后,现在分词的被动形式放后。例如:I have a friend living in London . (短语)China belongs to the developing country . (单个的词)The building being built now is a hospital . (现在分词的被动式)The man dressed in a new suit is our manager . (短语)Only by practice will you be able to improve your spoken English . (单个的词)Mary needs a dictionary to refer to . (不定式)※ 分词所修饰的名词就是该分词的逻辑主语。若被修饰的名词与分词之间存在着逻辑上的主动关系,即被修饰的名词是动作的执行者,则用现在分词,若是被动关系,即被修饰的名词是动作的承受者,可用现在分词的被动式或过去分词。它们俩主要从时间上区别,现在分词被动式表示正在进行的动作;过去分词表示完成的动作或无时间性,只表被动关系。例如:There is a river running around our school . (主动关系)The watch being repaired now is hers . (被动关系,正在进行的动作)He is an English teacher liked by all his students . (表被动关系)Japan is a developed country . (表完成,表被动)※ 心理反应状态动词,如:excite , fright , move , tire , interest , puzzle , disappoint等,同现在分词作定语,表示“令人……”,被修饰的词通常是物,用过去分词作定语,被修饰的词通常是人。例如:What disappointing news it is!Don‘t make fun of the frightened child . 注意:puzzling expression “令人迷惑的表情”;puzzled expression (本身)迷惑的表情。※ 下列情况下常用不定式作定语。1 . 在被修饰的词前有形容词最高级、序数词以及the last , the only , the next等后作定语的时候,只能用不定式作定语。例如:He is always the first to come . The next man to come was Tom . This is the largest ship to be serving as a seaside hotel in our country . 2 . have +宾语的句型中,常用不定式作定语。例如:I have a lot of questions to ask . He has nothing to worry about . 3 . 在way , pleasure , chance , plan等名词后常用不定式或of +动名词,但在ability , failure , promise后只能用不定式。例如:I had no chance to speak (或of speaking) to him . His failure to pass the exam surprised us . 4 . 表示未来的动作。例如:He has two letters to write . 5 . 与被修饰的词有同位、动状关系的通常只能用不定式作定语。例如:I have the ability to speak a foreign language . (同位关系)I’m not sure which restaurant to eat at . A good place to eat at is the Peace Restaurant .【动脑动手】单元能力立体检测典型“语义重复现象”错误例析1 . 汤姆吃完早饭急急忙忙去上学。[误]After breakfast Tom was hurrying to go to school . [正]After breakfast Tom was hurrying to school . [析]hurry(=move quickly)本身含有“走”之意,后面不可再接go, walk , run之类的动词,但可接动词不定式或名词。 例如:We have to hurry away to catch the bus . She hurried to the station . 2 . 我们应当全心全意为人民服务。[误]We should serve for the people heart and soul . [正]We should serve the people heart and soul . [正]We should work for the people heart and soul . [析]serve本身有“work for(为……服务)”之意。作及物动词用时, 后面不可再接介词for。3 . 战争结束以后,她成了一名教师。[误]After the end of the war, she became a teacher . [正]After the war, she became a teacher . [析]句中after是介词,有“在……以后”的意思;end是名词,意思是“结束”,用了after,就不可再用end。4 . 只要校长一回来,我就立刻告诉你。[误]As soon as the president returns, I will let you know at once . [正]As soon as the president returns, I will let you know . [析]as soon as有“立刻”之意,从句中用了as soon as,主句中就不能再用at once, immediately, right away, right now之类的词了。5 . 这是一部极好的词典。[误]This is a very excellent dictionary . [正]This is an excellent dictionary . [析]excellent, wonderful等词含有“极好的(extremely good)”之意,不能用very修饰。再如:This is a wonderful film . 6 . 大家都非常喜欢这个小男孩。[误]Everyone all likes the little boy very much . [正]Everyone likes the little boy very much . [析]everyone有“每个人,大家”的意思,用了everyone或everybody, 不就必再用all了。7.这男孩名叫杨洋。[误]The name of the boy is called Yang yang . [正]The name of the boy is Yang yang . [析]name与be called不能同时使用,因为name与be called在语义上是重复的。我们通常说:My name is Li Biao . 但不能说:My name is called Li Biao . 8 . 踢足球是我最喜爱的运动。[误]Playing football is my most favourite sport . [正]Playing football is my favourite sport . [析]favourite本身有“最喜爱(like best)”之意,前面不必再用most修饰了。如:My favourite hobby is collecting stamps . 9 . 如果你知道这个答案,就举手。[误]Raise your hand up if you know the answer . [正]Raise your hand if you know the answer . [正]Put your hand if you know the answer . [析]raise有“举起”之意,后面不必再加up,它与put up同义。10 . 请把这个句子再重复一遍。[误]Please repeat the sentence again . [正]Please repeat the sentence . [正]Please say the sentence again . [析]repeat本身有“say or do sth . again”之意,用了repeat,就不必再用again了,但可说:Say it again . 11 . 你们应当把试卷保管好。[误]You should take good care of your papers carefully . [正]You should take good care of your papers . [析] take good care of有“认真保管好”之意, 后面不要再用副词carefully . 12 . 你喜欢喝茶还是喜欢咖啡? [误]Which do you prefer more, tea or coffee?[正]Which do you prefer, tea or coffee?[正]Which do you like better, tea or coffee?[析]prefer本身有“较喜欢(like better)”之意,如果句中用了prefer, 一般不再用more了。
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