新目标英语9年级unit11-12重点归纳(1)
    Category: 初三英语  Clicks: 1815  Top: 10  Update Date: 2008/09/13
Summary:1. Could you please tell me where the restrooms are?(P86) 请问洗手间在哪里?本句是问路或问处所的常用语,通常应先说excuse me,以引起对方注意,也表示尊重对方。Excuse me. Could you tell me where Xianfeng Middle School is?注意:宾语从句用陈述句语序。打扰了。请问先锋中学在.

  • 1. Could you please tell me where the restrooms are?(P86) 请问洗手间在哪里?本句是问路或问处所的常用语,通常应先说excuse me,以引起对方注意,也表示尊重对方。Excuse me. Could you tell me where Xianfeng Middle School is?注意:宾语从句用陈述句语序。打扰了。请问先锋中学在哪儿?知识拓展问路的表示法英语中表达问路或处所的句式有不少,下面介绍几种常用的问路的方法。试译:打扰了。请问去书店怎么走?Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the bookshop?Excuse me. Could you tell me how I can get to the bookshop?Excuse me. Could you tell me how to get to the bookshop?Excuse me. Could you tell me where the bookshop is?Excuse me. Which is the way to the bookshop, please?Excuse me. Where’s the bookshop, please?Excuse me. How can I get to the bookshop, please?2. ...because my friends hang out there. (P88)……因为我的朋友都在那儿闲逛。hang out常用于美语口语中,意为“闲逛”。还可以表示“常去某处”的意思。Where do you hang out these days?这些日子你们都在什么地方闲逛来着?知识拓展动词hang是“悬挂”,“吊”,“吊死”等意思。可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词。He remained hanging in mid-air, saved by the belt.他吊在半空中,安全带救了他。A full moon hung in the sky on Mid-autumn Day.中秋那天,一轮圆月挂在天空。The last Ming emperor hanged himself from this tree.明朝最后一个皇帝就是在这棵树上吊死的。特别提示同学们可能已经注意到,以上句子中的动词过去式用的不同。hang表示“悬挂”,“吊”的意思时,是不规则动词,过去式和过去分词形式是hung,而意为“吊死”时,是规则动词。魔力纠错① 同学们把一幅世界地图挂在左边墙上。误:The students hanged a map of the world on the wall to the left.正:The students hung a map of the world on the wall to the left.② 总有一天恐怖分子将被人民处以绞刑。误:The terrorists will be hung by the people some day.正:The terrorists will be hanged by the people some day.3. There’s always something happening.(P88)总是有事情发生。本句是there be句型的一个固定结构,即there be+sb/sth+doing sth,意为“有……在做……”。My friend said there was a truck collecting rubbish outside.

    我的朋友说外面有一辆卡车正在收集垃圾。There is a Mr Wang waiting to see you outside your office.有一个姓王的人在门外等着要见你。知识拓展◎ there be+sb/sth+to do sth,表示“主语将做某事”。There will be some Australian students to come to our class.有几个澳大利亚的学生要到我们班里来。◎ there be也可不表示“存在”意义,常以否定句的形式出现时,用于对某一具体行为和抽象概念的否定,其句型是there is+no+doing sth。There is no saying what may happen. 很难说会发生什么事。There is no telling when he will return. 说不清他何时回来。There is no knowing when we shall meet again. 不知何时我们能再相会。4. I also like to look at books in the bookstore. (P88)我也喜欢在书店里看书。汉语的“看书”既可表示“阅读”的意思,也可表示“翻看一下”,“随便看看”。英语的表达在词语上就有所不同了。请“看”区别。He looks at that book, takes it down and reads it carefully.他看了看那本书,然后拿下来,认真地读了起来。looks at that book与read it(the book)在内容上是完全不同的。look at that book仅指“看书”,用来表示“看了看”,不是以阅读为目的;而read it(the book)则是“读了读”书中的内容。5. Go past the park, and turn left onto Oak Street. (P88)走过公园,然后向左拐到橡树街。go past the park...是一种指路方式,go past表示“走过”的意思,past是介词,意为“途经”,“经过”。When she went past the parking, Mary saw a man standing at a new car.当玛丽走过停车场时,看见一个人站在一辆新车旁。【友情链接】常见的指路表达式有:Walk along/down this road, and take the first crossing on the right.沿着这条路向前走,在第一个十字路口向右拐。Go along this street, and turn right.顺着这条路向前走,然后向右拐。Walk on and turn left, and you will see the tall building on the right.继续向前走,然后左拐,在右边你就会看见那栋高楼了。Go along/down this street to the traffic lights, and turn left.沿着这条路向前走,一直到交通灯处,然后向左拐。6. ...and eat at Uncle Bob’s. (P90)……在鲍伯叔叔的小店吃饭。当名词表示店铺、办公室或某人的家时,名词所有格所修饰的名词常常省去。Uncle Bob’s是名词“‘s”所有格的一种特殊用法。在表示店铺,餐馆,某种职业,某人的家等名词的所有格后面的名词,常可以省略。如at the doctor’s=at the doctor’s clinic“在大夫的诊所”; at Mr Green’s=at Mr Green’s home“在格林先生家里”。特别提示在表示店铺、场所及姓氏的名词前,要用定冠词the,在表示称呼语的名词前,要加物主代词。7. They have organized games and the staff dressed up as clowns. (P90)他们组织游戏活动,工作人员打扮成小丑的模样。◎dress作为及物动词,指穿衣服的动作,后面不用表示衣服的名词作宾语,但可用指人的名词或代词作宾语,表示给某人穿衣服。She dressed her children quickly.她很快给孩子们穿上衣服。

    ◎dress的过去分词dressed与get连用表示“穿上衣服”。Let’s get dressed and leave at once.咱们穿好衣服马上出发。◎dress up是“化装”,“穿上盛装”,“打扮”(表示状态)的意思。They all dressed up as PLA men.他们都打扮成解放军的模样。She likes to dress up for a party.她喜欢把自己打扮得漂漂亮亮去参加晚会。而wear---wore----worn,be.....in,都是“穿”之意,指状态,put on穿上,指动作,Put yourcoat/it/them....on ,please.请穿上你的上衣,(代词只能放副词前,即两词之间)。She was in a red skirt yesterday.她昨天穿了一条红裙。The girl in a dress is my friend over there那边穿长裙的女孩是我的朋友。.8. make a telephone call(P86)打个电话Mr Tan makes the best noodles in town. (P91)谭先生是镇上面条做得最好的。make是英语中非常活跃的一个单词。◎ 用于打电话。第一句中的make后接表示电话的词语,是“打电话”的意思。make a telephone call相当于动词和动词短语:call, ring\ring.....up, phone, telephone,give a call to Sb=give Sba call 等。试译:我给格林先生打个电话。① I call/ring/phone/telephone Mr Green.② I call/ring/phone Mr Green up.③ I give Mr Green a ring/call.④ I make a telephone call to Mr Green.◎ 表示“做”,“制作”。第二句中的make表示“(用材料或零件)做,制作,制造,建造或创造某物”,其所制造的产品通常是由一个或几个部分组成的。Mother made a big cake for Michael on his birthday.妈妈为迈克尔生日做了一个大蛋糕。The workers are making cars in the factory. 工人们在工厂里生产汽车。He is good at making toy cars. 他擅长做儿童玩具。make up造句/组成/占....make tea/coffee冲茶/泡咖啡,make mistakes,make friends with与...交朋友make money 挣钱,make the bed铺床,make one's way to往....去\走错方向make a\some noise\s制造噪音,.make faces做鬼脸,.make a\some mistake\s,犯错误make sure确信,.make a decision=make up one's mind to+V=set one's mind to+V下决心\一心想做,.make room for 腾出一个地方\位置.【友情链接】make还有一个重要用法,表示“使”的意思,在历年的中考中都有它的考点。这一用法主要掌握两点:(1)在主动语态中,后接不定式作宾语补足语时要省去to;(2)在被动语态中后接不定式作主语补足语时,一定要加上to。The boss made his employees work two more hours.老板使他的雇员又工作了两个小时。Maria was made to leave the company.玛丽亚被迫离开了公司。9. ...“Excuse me, I wonder if you can help me.”(P92)……“打扰了,我不知道您是否能帮帮我”。动词wonder在不同的句子结构中表达的意思不同:(1)后接“who, what, why等疑问词引导的宾语从句”,“疑问词+不定式”时,表示“想知道”。The teacher wondered why she was late.老师想知道她为什么迟到。He wondered what happened.他想知道发生了什么事情。I’m just wondering how to do it.我正想知道怎么做那件事。(2)后接“that引导的宾语从句”,“不定式短语”时,表示“感到惊奇,对……感到惊讶”。

    I wonder that he was off office.我对他下岗感到惊讶。I wonder to see her looking so cheerful. 我很惊讶地发现她如此高兴。(3)后接if或whether引导的宾语从句时,表示一种委婉的请求或疑问。I wonder if you would mind giving me a hand.我不知道你是否能帮我一下。She wondered whether you were free that morning.她不知道那天上午你是否有空。
    Unit 12 You’re supposed to shak hands.
    重点、难点、考点及疑点注释1. You’re supposed to shake hands.(P94)你们应该握手。be supposed to用来表示根据规定或按照法律人们不得不做的事,或期待将要发生的事,与should相似,后面也是接动词原形。否定形式在be动词后加not,常表示禁止做某事。We’re supposed to make no noise in class. 在课堂上我们不该发出噪音。We’re supposed to start work at 8∶00 every morning.我们应该每天早晨八点开始工作。2. Spending time with family and friends is very important to us. (P96)与家人和朋友共度时光对我们非常重要。Spending time with family and friends 是动名词短语,在本句中作主语。动名词(短语)作主语时,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式。如果是并列的动名词(短语)作主句时,谓语动词用复数形式。Reading in bed is not good for your eyes. 在床上看书对眼睛不好。Reading and writing take me a lot of time. 读书写作花了我不少时间。不定式(短语)也可作主语,两者的区别在“语法天地”中有详解。3. We’re the land of watches, after all! (P96)毕竟我们是手表的国度。句中的land意为“国土”,“国家”。它还可以表示 “陆地”,与河流和海洋相对;也可以表示“土地”,可耕种的田地就叫做land。We traveled by land until we reached the sea.我们沿陆路旅行,直到看见大海。All the waste land in this area has been opened up.这个地区的荒地全被开垦了。知识拓展与“土地”,“地”相关的词语还有earth, soil和ground。◎ earth意为“地”,“地球”,“泥土”。它着重指“大地”,区别于“天空”。The earth moves round the sun.地球围绕太阳转。◎ soil意为“土地”,“土壤”,尤指生长植物的土地。The soil is very thin in the forest.森林里土层非常薄。◎ ground意为“地”,“地面”,主要指大地表面。不论是泥地,沙地或水泥地,均可用这个词表示;也可以用来指运动场地。The ground is covered with leaves in the woods.树林里的地面上落满了树叶。4. You’re not supposed to make noise while eating noodles. (P97)吃面条的时候你不应该弄出响声来。句中的while eating noodles是while接从句的省略形式,该句完整形式是while you are eating noodles。由while和when引导的时间状语从句,如果主语和主句的主语相同,从句中的主语和be动词常可省略。

    While/When (she was)leaving the house, she was heard to make some commonplace remark to her husband.有人听到她在离开房间时同他的丈夫寒暄。5. It’s rude to point at anyone with your chopsticks. (P97)用筷子指着别人是无礼的。本句是主系表结构,不定式短语是真正的主语,it是形式主语。句中point意为“指”,“指向”,常构成短语point at, point to和point out。◎point to和point at都含有“指着”的意思,两者一般可以互换。The teacher is pointing at/to the map on the wall.老师指着墙上的地图。◎但主语是事物时,一般用point to作谓语。point at可以分开使用,即point后直接跟名词或代词作宾语,再跟介词at表示方向,意为“把……指向”,而point to却不能分开使用。The soldier pointed his gun at the doctor.士兵用枪指着医生。◎point out意为“指出”,其中out是副词。如果它后面的宾语是代词,则必须把该宾语放在out之前。Please point out the mistakes in my composition.请指出我作文中的错误。Luckily, the man knew Mr Green and pointed him out to us.幸好这个人认识格林先生,于是便把他指给我们看。6. Although I still make lots of mistakes, it doesn’t bother me like it used to. (P98)虽然我还是出了不少错,但它(法语)不像以前那样让我烦恼。(1)mistake意为“错误”,“过失”,可数名词,常指由于认识,理解或判断上的失误造成行为或看法上的错误,也指因粗心,疏忽,技术不熟练等而犯的错误。通常与make连用构成make mistakes/a mistake“出错”,“犯错误”。Anyone can make a mistake. 人人都会犯错误。He only made two mistakes in grammar today. 他今天只犯了两个语法错误。(2)bother 意思是“烦扰,打扰”,常用作及物动词。Hot weather bothers me. 炎热的天气使我烦恼。7. I find it difficult to remember everything, but I’m gradually getting used to things, and don’t find them so strange any more. (P98)我发现将这一切全记住很难,但慢慢就对这些东西习惯了,也就不再觉得它们很怪异了。(1)find it difficult to remember everything中的it是形式宾语,动词不定式短语是真正的宾语,形容词difficult是宾补。I found it hard to do the work all by myself.我发现独自一人干这活很难。I think it useful to read English in the morning. 我认为早晨读英语很有用。(2)be used to sth/doing(sth)是中学英语学习中的重点、难点,也是中考考点。常与used to do sth和be used to do sth一起进行考查。◎be used to是“习惯于”的意思,可用于各种时态。其中to是介词,后面接名词、代词或动词-ing形式。She isn’t used to living in the country.她不习惯住在乡下。We’ve been used to hard work.我们已经习惯干累活了。used to +V动词原形 /n/pron...过去常常干...从前是...He used to be a translator.他从前是一位翻译员。He didn't to go to school late.他过去上学从不迟到。◎强调界限性的状态,说明从不习惯到习惯时,常在used前面用get或become代替be。这种现象尤其常见于将来时态和完成时态中。You will soon get used to the weather here.你很快就会习惯这里的天气的。有时be used to do是动词use的被动语态形式,意为“被用来……”。在这种结构里,to是动词不定式符号。Man-made satellites are used to send and receive TV programs.人造卫星用来发射和接收电视节目。Steel may be used to make machines.钢可以用来制造机器。8. Questions crowded my mind. (P99)我的脑海涌现出一些疑问。crowd表示“大量涌入”,在此句中的crowd是比喻用法,含义是“涌入”。Disturbing thoughts crowded into my mind. 我心乱如麻。Tourists crowded the beach. 游客挤满了海滩。9. ...your teachers will not be pleased if you write e-mail English in a test!(P101)……如果你在测试中用电子邮件英语老师会不高兴的。please“使高兴”,相关词语有pleased, pleasure与pleasant。Does the cloth please you?这布料合你的意吗?The Emperor was pleased by what the Minister told him about the cloth.听了大臣关于布料的禀报,皇帝非常高兴。【友情链接】这四个词都有“满意”,“高兴”的意思,但词性和用法不相同。◎ please是动词,可用作及物动词或不及物动词,表示“(使)高兴,满意,愉快”。◎ pleased是过去分词,意为“感到高兴(满意)”,其作用相当于形容词,常与be连用,后接介词at, with, by等引起的短语,还可接动词不定式或that从句。◎ pleasure是名词,表示“高兴”,“快乐”,“娱乐”时,为不可数名词;表示“乐趣,高兴的事”时,为可数名词。如:It is one of my greatest pleasures.它是我最大的乐趣之一。◎pleasant是形容词,意为“使人感到愉快(满意)”,一般用作定语。如主语指物,也可用作表语。 10. seat与 sit“坐”不同◎ seat通常用作及物动词,与反身代词连用,或用be seated这一形式(这种用法不如sit普通),seat还可作“能坐……人”解,主语往往是地方。Be seated, everybody!大家请坐吧。That cinema can seat 2,000 people.那家电影院能坐两千人。◎ sit通常作不及物动词,不需要宾语。In the bus we sat together.在公共汽车里我们坐在一起。注意一些相关短语的区别:take a seat就坐,take one’s place 顶替谁的位置/篡位/接…的班,take place发生。11....should +have+V(PP过去分词),表示对目前或将来某一动作的态度和看法,是“本该干...”之意。
    E g: I shouldn't have told you .我本不该告诉你的. Happy winter vocation to you !
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