2007高考必背英语词汇讲座-G字头
    Category: 英语词汇  Clicks: 1873  Top: 10  Update Date: 2008/09/14
Summary:试比较:gather books 把书聚集在一起 -- collect books 收集藏书gather money 攒钱 -- collect money 筹募资金gather stamps 把邮票集中在一起 -- collect stamps 集邮gather thoughts 集中思想 -- collect thoughts 组织思想  2、gaze, glare, stare.

  • 试比较:gather books 把书聚集在一起 -- collect books 收集藏书gather money 攒钱 -- collect money 筹募资金gather stamps 把邮票集中在一起 -- collect stamps 集邮gather thoughts 集中思想 -- collect thoughts 组织思想 
    2、gaze, glare, stare
    gaze为“凝视”,指聚精会神地注视,含有倾慕,神往或惊喜等意味。它常和介词at, on, into连用。如:He gazed into the blue sky.他出神地望着蓝天。She gazed at/on the film star with admiration.她带着倾慕的眼神看着那个影星。
    glare为“怒视”,指凶狠愤怒地注视,强调敌对的态度。它常和介词at连用。如:The angry farther glared at his daughter.怒气冲冲的父亲愤怒地看着自己的女儿。The men who were fighting glared at each other.正在打架的两个人愤怒地看着对方。
    stare为“盯着看,呆看”,指出于惊奇或痴呆,无礼地,目不转睛地看。它常和介词at, on, into连用。如:His eyes were staring at her like those of a wild animal.他的眼睛像野兽般地盯着她看。He stared on the foreigner in wonder.他好奇地盯着那个外国人看。 
    3、get in, get on
    这两个短语均可表示“上车”。get in后接小轿车,出租车等小型车辆。由于其车身较低,只有进入的概念,没有上的概念。get on后接公交车,火车等大型车辆,以及飞机,自行车,摩托车,马匹等,指上车上马时要脚登上阶梯或踏脚等。表示“下车,下马”时,也相应地用get out of a car/taxi 及get off a bus/train/horse等。如:
    They invited us to get in the car and go to the amusement park.他们邀请我们上车去游乐场玩。When the singer got out of the taxi, he was welcomed by a group of young people.当这位歌手走出车门时受到了一群年轻人的欢迎。They are calling us to board the plane; let's get on. 他们在叫我们登机,我们走吧。 
    4、get into trouble, go to the trouble
    get into trouble为“出事,遇到麻烦”,指由于行为不慎等原因而招惹麻烦,陷入困境。如:If you go this way, you might get into trouble with the police.如果你这么做的话,警方会找你的麻烦。He has got into trouble; let's go and help him.他遇到了麻烦,我们去帮助他吧。
    此结构中的get也可作及物动词,后接宾语,表示“使某人陷入困境”。如:His bad habit was always getting him into trouble.他的坏习惯使他惹上了麻烦。
    go to the trouble为“费事,不辞辛苦”, 指主动地去承担麻烦,后可接动词不定式或接of短语。它与take the trouble同义。如:The host went to the trouble to make me comfortable.主人为了我的舒适而不辞麻烦。She went to the trouble of shortening the trousers for her younger brother.她主动揽下了把她弟弟的裤子改小的任务。
    为了加强语气,此结构中的trouble前可用a lot of等修饰语代替the。如:I'll stay here for dinner, but please do not go to a lot of trouble for me.我会留下来吃饭,但请别特地为我做很多菜。
    5、gift, present
    这两个词皆可作“礼物”解,常可互换使用。gift的基本含义是强调give(给),表示一种“赠与”,它可指新的,珍贵的礼物,也可指一件旧的物品。它不强调给予者与受予者之间的关系,不具有为所接受的东西付酬谢的含义,也排除了回报之意。如:He gave gifts of money to the poor. 他将钱赠予穷人们。The gold chain was a Christmas gift from her aunt. 这条金链子是她阿姨送给她的圣诞礼物。
    present专指为表达敬意、亲情、友谊而赠送的实物,强调赠送者与接受者之间的亲密关系。如:Students exchange presents on New Year's Eve. 除夕之夜,学生们互赠礼物。 
    6、give away, give way
    这两个动词词组意义完全不同。give away是一个及物动词词组,后需接宾语,它的主要意义为“分发(奖品,考卷,书本等物品),失去(机会),泄露(底细,机密,想法)”。如:The principal gave away the prizes at the sports meeting.校长在运动会上颁奖。You have given away a good chance.你失去了一个良机。The heroic girl refused to give away the secret to the enemy.女英雄在敌人面前拒绝泄漏秘密。
    give way是一个动宾结构的词组,后面不能再接宾语。它主要用来指人显示谦让和屈服的“让路,让步”,以及具体事物的“崩塌"。如:The boy gave way to the old lady.这男孩给一位老太太让路。It's his mother's fault for giving way to him too often.老是迁就这孩子是他妈妈的错。The old wall gave way and injured three children.这堵墙崩塌了,致使三个孩子受伤。
    7、give in, give up
    这两个短语动词作“投降”讲时,通常可以互换使用。如:Completely surrounded by our troops, the enemy finally gave in / up.由于我军将敌军团团围住,他们终于投降了。
    give in还可表示“屈服;让步”的意思,此时它作不及物动词用,后不能跟宾语。如:Stubborn as he was, he finally gave in.他虽然很固执,但最后还是让步了。Both sides argued with reason, and neither would give in.双方都振振有词地辩论着,可谁也不服谁。
    give up 则还可表示“放弃(希望);戒除”的意思,作及物动词用,其后接名词或动词作宾语。如:All hope of finding the missing aircraft was given up and the search abandoned.要找到那架失踪的飞机已经毫无希望,于是搜索停止了。He soon gave up smoking when he heard the medical report.他听了那次医学报告后,不久就把烟戒了。 
    8、give off, give out
    这两个短语都表示“散发,发出”之意,一般可以换用,但侧重点有所不同。give off通常用来表示“散发,发出”某种气体或气味。如:Boiling water gives off steams.开水散发出蒸汽。This milk must be bad, for it is giving off a nasty smell.牛奶一定变质了,因为它散发出一种令人恶心的气味。The chimney no longer gives off volumes of waste gas into the atmosphere, as protective filters are being used.加装了防护过滤器以后,这烟囱已不再向空中散发成股的废气了。
    give out 则通常用来表示“散发”某种光,声,热,信号等物理现象。此外,它还可以表示“分发,宣布,耗尽”等现象。如:The leaves gave out a whirring sound.树叶发出沙沙声。The sun gives out light and heat to the earth.太阳向地球发出光和热。The ship gave out radio signals for help.船发出无线电信号求助。The government gave out food to people out of work.政府向失业者分发食品。He gave out that the president was dead.他宣布说总统去世了。It was feared that food supplies would give out before the besieged town could be relieved.都害怕在那城市解围之前断了粮。Both the man and the horse gave out after the long ride.赶了很长一段路后,人马俱乏。 
    9、glad, happy, pleased
    glad为“高兴的,乐意的”,指一时短暂的强烈喜悦,只能用于人。它只能作表语,不作定语,后可接介词of短语,不定式或that从句。如:I'm glad of your success in the games.你在比赛中获得胜利,我为你感到高兴。We're glad that you have won the gold medal.我们很高兴你能获得金牌。
    happy为“幸福的,高兴的”,隐含一种强烈的满足感,可用于人或事物。它可作定语及表语,后可接介词 about, at, over, with短语及不定式或that从句。如:The story has a happy end.这个故事的结局皆大欢喜。I am so happy that you could visit us.很高兴你能来看我们。
    pleased为“喜悦的,满足的”,指持续时间较长的喜悦,只能用于人。它多作表语,很少被用作定语,它的后面可接介词at, about, with短语,不定式或that 从句。如:There is nothing to be pleased about.没什么可高兴的。Mother was pleased with my full mark in arithmetic.我算数得了满分,妈妈很高兴。 
    10、go on doing, go on to do, go on with
    这三个词组都表示“继续”的意思,但用法和含义上有差异。go on doing指做某一事情因故暂停,尚未做完,再“继续”做下去。它还可表示“一直做某事”。如:Although it was late, she went on working.虽然很晚了,她还继续工作着。After a short break, he went on reading the text.暂停了一会儿后,他又接着读课文。You shouldn't go on living in this way!你总不能一直就这么生活下去。
    go on to do则表示某一件事已做完,再“接着”去做另一件事。如:He went on to talk about the world situation.他接着又谈了谈世界形势。Father said mother had gone to the hospital, and went on to say that grandmother was coming to take care of us.父亲说母亲已经住院去了,接着又说祖母将来照料我们。
    go on with 是一个动副介型短语动词,其后通常接名词或代词作宾语。如:May I go on with my work now?我现在可以继续做我的工作了吗?Please go on with your story.请继续讲你的故事。 
    11、gold, golden
    gold为“金的,金制的”,表示是真金的质地;golden 为“金的,金色的”,指金黄色的外表。golden还常用于引申意义,含有贵重,重要,幸运等意思。试比较:a gold watch 金表 -- a golden watch 金色的表再如:gold coin (金币), gold bar (金条), gold mine (金矿), gold chain (金链条), golden hair (金发), golden sunlight (金色的阳光), golden age (黄金时代), golden years (金色的年华), golden saying(金玉良言)。
    12、go to school, go to the school
    这两个词组只有冠词之差,但意义迥然不同。go to school是习语,表示“上学(求学)”的意思;go to the school是指到一所特指的学校去,不一定是去求学,可能是因为有什么事情需去办等等。如:Is he old enough to go to school?他够入学年龄了吗?I'll go to the school to talk with the master.我将去学校与校长谈谈。 
    13、go to sea, go to the sea
    go to sea属习语,它表示“去当水手,出航”的意思。
    go to the sea 则表示“去某一特定的海边”的意思。试比较:The boy was tired of looking for a job near his home and eventually decided to go to sea.这孩子不愿在他家附近工作,最后便决定当水手。Owing to a high wind, the ship could not go to sea.由于大风,船不能启航。They usually go to the sea in midsummer.他们通常在仲夏时到海滨去。 
    14、good at, good with
    good at 指“擅长于,善于某一科目、某种业余消遣或某种活动”,其后接名词或动名词。如:He is good at maths.他擅长数学。We are not only good at destroying the old world. We are also good at building the new one.我们不但善于破坏一个旧世界,我们还善于建设一个新世界。
    good with 通常指“善于使用,处理某物或对待某人”,其后通常接表示工具,人体器官或人的名词。如:He was good with his hands and heads.他心灵手巧。He is good with these tools.他善于使用这些工具。She understands children, so she is good with them.她了解孩子们,所以与他们相处得很好。 
    15、good for, for good
    good for是一个形容词短语,可以表示下列三种意义:1.价值为...;有支付...能力的2.有效的;对......有利3.有必需的精力,意愿。例如:It is a coupon good for 100 pounds.那是一张价值一百英磅的息票。He is good for a thousand dollar contribution.他能捐献一千美元。This battery is good for three months.这种电池大约可用三个月。The return half of the ticket is good for three months.回程票有效期为三个月。This dictionary is good for your English study.这本辞典对你的英语学习有益。This kind of medical herb is good for T.B.这种草药对结核病有疗效。He is good for several years' more service.他还有精力再服务几年。
    for good是一个介词短语,for是介词,good是名词;在句中充当时间状语,表示“永久地,一劳永逸地”的意思。如:He says that he is leaving the country for good.他说他此次出国将不再回来了。He hoped that the repairs would stop the leak for good.他希望这次修好后,漏处不再漏了。 16、gone, lost, missing
    gone表示“丢了,没了”,含有一去不复返的意味,在句中可作表语和补语,但不能做定语。如:My fever is gone, but I still have a cough.我的烧已经退了,但还有些咳嗽。She looked down at her dress and found her necklace gone.她低头看了一下自己的衣服,发现项链不见了。
    lost 表示“丢失”,含有失去后难以回归的意味,在句中可作定语,表语和补语。如:The parents found the lost child at last.父母亲终于找到了自己丢失的孩子。His elder brother was lost at sea.他的哥哥在海里失踪了。
    missing表示“失踪了,不见了”,强调某人或某物不在原处,在句中可作定语,表语和补语。如:My Japanese-Chinese dictionary is missing.我的日汉词典不见了。The police are trying their best to find the missing school-girl.警方正在尽力寻找这个失踪的女生。 
    17、grateful to, grateful for
    grateful to指“对……表示感激”,其中的介词to表示对象,宾语通常是人或组织团体,to 也可用towards代替。
    grateful for指“为……表示感激“,其中的介词for表示原因,宾语通常是某一件事。如:I shall be deeply grateful to our Workers' Union as long as I live. 我一辈子都深深感谢我们的工会。I'll be very grateful to you if you will give me an early answer. 如果您能早点给我答复,我将非常感激您。We're grateful for all that you've done to us.对你所做的一切,我们表示万分感谢。
    介词to和for可同时与grateful连用,to短语应置于for短语之前。如:I'm very grateful to you for having taken so much trouble.对您的不辞麻烦我们表示非常感激。They were particularly grateful to us for our timely help.他们对我们所给予的及时的帮助表示了特别的感谢。
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