六级词汇天天背
    Category: 英语六级  Clicks: 6401  Top: 9  Update Date: 2008/09/13
Summary:Abide by your promise. 遵守你的诺言。She can’t abide that man. 她无法忍受那个人。[词组] abide by 遵守,坚持abolishvt. 依法废止、废除,革除There are many bad customs and laws that ought to be abolished .有很多不良的旧习惯和法律应予以废除。[反]establish.

  • Abide by your promise. 遵守你的诺言。She can’t abide that man. 她无法忍受那个人。[词组] abide by 遵守,坚持abolishvt. 依法废止、废除,革除There are many bad customs and laws that ought to be abolished .有很多不良的旧习惯和法律应予以废除。[反]establishabsorptionn. 吸收,吸收过程;专注Complete absorption in sport interfered with his studies. 一心专注于体育运动妨碍了他的学业。absurdadj. 不合理的、荒唐的、可笑的、愚蠢的。It was absurd of you to suggest such a thing.你竟提出这样的一件事,真可笑。[同]ridiculousabundancen. 丰富,充裕live in abundance 过着丰衣足食的生活an abundance of good things 很多好东西academyn. 高等学府,专科学校 ;研究会,学院the Chinese Academy of Science 中国科学院accelerationn. 加速度,加速率,加速 ;促进,加快accessoryn. 附件、附属品 ;同谋,帮凶the accessories of a bicycle 自行车的附件an accessory to a murderer 一个杀人犯的同谋adj. 附加的,附属的;同谋的,帮凶的accordv.给予,赠予accord sb. Permission = accord permission to sb. 允许某人[同]grantv. (使)符合,(使)一致His actions accord with his words. 他言行一致。n. 一致,调和 ;(国家间的)条约、规定[词组]in/out of accord with 与…一致/与…不一致of one’s own accord 自动地,自发地He gave generously of his own accord. 他自愿慷慨解囊。With one accord 全体一致地acknowledgevt. 承认She refused to acknowledge defeat. 她拒绝承认失败。vt. 表示感谢We must not fail to acknowledge his services to the town . 我们必须感谢他对本市的贡献。vt. 表示认识,向(某人)打招呼 ;告知(信件、礼物)的收到,确认acknowledge sb.’s letter 确认收到某人的来信vt. 【律】公证acknowledge a deed公证一项契约[难点] 感谢某人通常不说 acknowledge sb. 常用acknowledge one’s … with … 用…向某人的…致谢He acknowledged the applause with a small bow.他鞠躬以谢欢呼。acknowledge 后接动词的ing形式,不接动词不定式。He acknowledged having been frightened. 他承认受惊。[词组]acknowledge one's defeat承认失败It is universally acknowledged that... ...是大家所公认的acknowledge the applause谢幕acknowledge the corn[美俚]承认为事实, 认输, 甘拜下风acknowledge the superiority of自认不如acquaintvt. 通知、告知I acquainted him with my plan. 我把计划告诉他。[同]informvt. 使认识,使熟悉We are acquainted with each other . 我们互相认识。[难点]acquaint sb./oneself with 使某人熟悉 ;把…通知某人be acquainted with sb. 与某人相识,了解become/get acquainted with 开始认识,开始了解adherevi. 坚持,追随,依靠He adhered to his decision. 他坚持自己的决定。粘着Gum adhered to her fingers. 口香糖粘着她的手。[同]stick[难点]adhere to / stick to / cling to 坚持… 拥护… 依靠…;粘着…adjacentadj. 邻近的,毗连的[同]neighboringadj. 前后相连的a music programme adjacent to the news 紧接在新闻前的(或后)的音乐节目[词组]be adjacent to … 临近…;紧接在…前(或后)的adjoinv. 临近,毗连Mexico adjoins the United States. 墨西哥与美国界临。adjustableadj. 可调节的,可校准的admirationn. 赞美,钦佩,赞赏He was lost in admiration of the beautiful view. 他沉醉在美丽的景色中。[词组]admiration for 对…赞美,钦佩I have a great admiration for your wisdom. 我非常钦佩你的智慧。adoptionn. 收养;采用,采纳,正式通过the adoption of new rules 新规则的表决通过adorevt. 崇拜,敬慕He adores his teacher. 他敬慕他的老师。[同]worshipvt. 极为喜欢I adore swimming. 我非常喜欢游泳。advantageousadj. 有利的,有助的 advertisev. 为…做广告,登广告advertise in all newspapers 在所有报纸上登广告v. 通知,告知advertise sb. of one’s plan 告知某人自己的计划[难点]advertise for sth. 登广告征求(或寻找)某物advertise sth 为某物做广告advocaten.提倡者,拥护者an advocate of peace 提倡和平的人[同]supporter辩护者,律师vt. 拥护, 支持; 提倡; 主张; 建议; 辩护[同]favor[难点]advocate 后接名词、动名词,不接动词不定式Do you advocate keeping all children at school till the age of sixteen ?你主张将义务教育延长至十六岁吗?aerialadj. 空气的,大气的aerial currents 气流adj. 航空的aerial stunts 空中特技n. 天线[同](美)antennaaerospacen. 太空,宇宙空间affirmv. 断言,肯定He affirms his innocence. 他断言自己是清白的。[同]assertv. 证实,批准The council affirmed the decision. 委员会批准了这项决议。agitationn. 搅动,摇动;激动,忧虑She was in a state of agitation. 她处于激动状态。n. 鼓动,煽动agreeableadj. 令人愉快的She has an agreeable voice. 她的嗓音悦耳。[同]pleasantadj. 易相处的[同]compatibleadj. (欣然)同意的I’m agreeable to doing what you suggest. 我乐于照你的建议去做。alasint. (表示悲痛、遗憾等的惊叹声)哎呀,唉albumn. 相册,集邮册,签名纪念册;唱片簿,唱片集alertadj. 警惕的,警觉的be alert in answering questions 留心回答问题[同]watchfuladj. 机灵的[同]clevern. 注意,提防,小心They are always on the alert for traffic signals. 他们总是很留心交通信号。n. 警戒,警报,戒备状态[难点]be alert to sth. 警惕…be on the alert for / against sth /to do sth. 警惕…,随时准备着做…algebran. 代数学,代数alienn. 外国人,外侨[同]foreigneradj. 外国的alien nationality 外国国籍adj. 不同性质的,异己的,相异的[难点]be alien to / from… 与…相异或相反The principles are alien to our religion. 这些原则与我们的宗教相悖。Alignmentn. 直线排列,队列The desks are in/out of alignment. 桌子排成/没有排成直行。n. 结盟,联合alliedadj. 联合的,同盟的,联姻的;同源的[难点]be allied to … (指事物)与…有关系,与…同属一类The English language is allied to the German language. 英语与德语属于同一语系。allowancen. 津贴,补贴housing allowance 房贴[难点]make allowance for …考虑到,顾虑到We must make allowance for his youth. 我们必须体谅他年轻。allyn. 同盟国,同盟者;助手,支持者v. 联盟,结合[难点]ally(oneself)with / to… 与…联盟,联姻Germany allied itself with Italy. 德国与意大利联盟。alongsideprep. 在…旁边[同]besideadv. 并排地,并肩地alterationn. 改变,变更[同]modificationalternatev. 轮流,使交替发生We alternate in cleaning the room. 我们轮流打扫房间。adj. 交替的,轮流的Tom and Harry do the work on alternate days. 汤姆和哈里隔日轮流做这工作。amateurn. 业余爱好者,业余运动员[反]professionaladj. 业余的 an amateur painter 业余画家[反]professionalambassadorn. 大使 the British Ambassador to China 英国驻华大使ambientadj. 周围的,包围着的[同] surroundingambiguousadj. 模棱两可的,含糊的His answer was ambiguous. 他的答复很含糊。[同]vagueambitiousadj. 有雄心的,野心勃勃的;有强烈欲望的,炫耀的[难点]be ambitious of / for / to do sth 热衷于…He is ambitious of / for power. 他热衷于权力。ampleadj. 宽大的,宽敞的an ample room 宽敞的房间[同]spaciousadj. 丰富的,富裕的ample food 充足的食物[同]abundantadj. 足够的,充足的Five dollars will be ample for my needs. 五美元将足够应付我的需要了。[同]enoughamplituden. 广大,广阔,丰裕;(物)振幅amusementn. 娱乐,快乐To the great amusement of everybody,the actor’s beard fell off.使每个人都感到很好笑的是那演员的胡子掉下来了。[同]entertainmentn. 娱乐品,游乐场所There are plenty of amusements here ---- cinemas,the atres,concerts,and so on.这里有很多娱乐----电影院,戏院,音乐会等。analoguen. 类似物[同]counterpartn. (语)同源词,对应词analogyn. 相似,类似[同]likenessn. 比拟,类推,类比;类比论证[难点]bear/show an analogy to/with… 具有(显示)与…相似的特征draw an analogy between … 在…之间作比喻The teacher drew an analogy between the human heart and a pump.老师把心脏比作一个泵。by/from analogy 用类推法on the analogy of 根据…类推analyticadj. 分析的,分解的,用分析法的anniversaryn. 周年纪念日,周年纪念wedding anniversary 结婚周年纪念annuallyadv. 每年,年年anoden.(电)阳极,正级[反]cathodeantarcticadj. 南极的,南极区的the Antarctic Circle 南极圈n. (the Antarctic)南极区antennan.(pl.)antennae,antennas天线;[同]aerialn. 触角,触须antiquen. 古董,古艺术品(the antique)古风,古代艺术风格appendixn.(pl.)appendices,appendixes附录,附属物two appendixes to a book 书的两个附录[同]supplementn. 盲肠,阑尾applaudv. 鼓掌欢迎,欢呼The audience applauded her singing. 听众为她的歌唱鼓掌叫好。[同]cheern. 赞扬,赞成I applaud your decision. 我赞成你的决定。applausen. 热烈称赞,喝彩,鼓掌be greeted with applause 受到鼓掌欢迎[同]praiseappreciableadj. 可估计的,可觉察的an appreciable change in the temperature 可感到的气温变化[同]perceptibleappreciationn. 鉴别,评价,欣赏She showed no appreciation of good music. 她对好音乐毫无欣赏能力。n. 感激in sincere appreciation of your valuable help 由衷感激你宝贵的帮助。aptadj. 易于,倾向于[同]inclinedadj. 灵巧的,灵敏的an apt pupil 聪明的学生[同]quick-wittedadj. 贴切的,恰当的[难点]be apt to do sth. 有…的倾向的,易于… He is apt to forget people’s names. 她易于忘记别人的名字。be apt at doing sth 做某事聪明的He is very apt at picking up a new subject. 他很善于学习新科目。arcn. 弧;弧形物;(电)弧光archn. 拱,拱门,拱形结构an arch bridge 拱桥[同]bowv. 拱起,(使)成**形Horses arch their necks. 马拱起颈脖。v. 用拱连接,横跨A bridge arches the river. 桥横跨在河上。architectn.建筑师;(喻)缔造者,设计师,创造者[同]founderarchitecturen. 建筑学,建筑术;建筑物;建筑式样arcticadj. 北极的,北极区的;极冷的an arctic wind 寒风arrayvt. 部署(军队等)以备作战,列阵The soldiers were arrayed on the opposite hill. 士兵被部署在对面山头上。vt. 穿着,盛装arrayed like a queen 盛装如皇后[同]dress[难点]an array of … 一大批,一系列ascendv. 攀登,上升The airplane ascended into the cloud. 飞机高高飞入云端。[反]descendv. 追溯(to)ascertainvt. 查明,弄清,确定ascertain where the trouble lies 弄清毛病所在[同]find outascribevt. 把…归于[同] attribute[考点]ascribe … to sth 把…归功于,归咎于,归因于They ascribe his success to good luck. = His success was ascribed to good luck.他们把他的成功归因于幸运。ashoreadv. 在岸上,上岸go ashore 离船上岸,登岸assn. 驴;[同]donkeyn. 愚蠢的人,固执的人[同]idiot[难点]make an ass of oneself 出洋相,做蠢事make an ass of sb. 捉弄某人assassinatevt. 暗杀[同]murdervt. 中伤,破坏(名誉等)assaultn. 猛烈而突然的攻击They made an assault on the enemy’s positions.他们突袭敌人的阵地。[同]attackv. 袭击,突袭[同]assail[难点]make an assault on/upon… 攻击…,袭击…assertvt. 宣言,断言assert one’s innocence 声明自己的清白[同]declarevt. 维护,主张,坚持[同]maintain[难点]assert oneself 坚持自己的权利,坚持己见assessmentn. 估计,评估,估计数额[同]estimation[难点]make/take an assessment of 对…进行估计、评估assumptionn. 假定,假设[同]suppositionn. 承当,担任the assumption of office 就职n. 自负,傲慢[难点]on the assumption that… 假定…on the condition that… 以…为条件assurancen. 自信,把握,胸有成竹He answered all the questions with assurance. 他有把握地回答了所有的问题。[同]self-confidencen. 承诺,担保,保证We had his assurance that he would help us.我们得到他愿意帮助我们的承诺。[同]guarantee(律)不动产转让(证书)astonishmentn. 惊奇,惊讶,惊愕To my astonishment,my money was gone.使我大吃一惊的是我的钱丢了。[同]great surprisen. 令人惊讶的事物astronomyn. 天文学atmosphericadj. 大气的,空气的,大气层的[同]aerialadj. 大气所引起的atmospheric disturbances 大气干扰attachmentn. 附属,附着,附带;附属物,附件;友爱,深情,爱慕have an attachment for sb. 对某人怀有深情[难点]attachment to/ for 某物的附件;对某人爱慕;对某事忠诚;attachment to a cause 对事业的忠诚attendancen. 看护,照料;到场,出席attendance at the meeting 到会n. 出席的次数How many attendances has he made ? 他出席了几次?n. (与形容词连用)出席的人数a large attendance at the meeting. 到会的人多[难点]be in attendance on/upon sb. 护理某人,侍候某人The major was in attendance upon the Queen. 这少校担任女王的侍卫。attendantn. 服务员,值班员,护理人员attorneyn. (美)律师[同](英)solicitorn. (业务或法律上的)代理人[同]agentauton. 汽车vi. 乘汽车 auto through the mountains 乘汽车经过山区automatevt. 使自动化automate a plant 使工厂自动化availv. 有利(于),有助(于)Money does not avail on a desert island. 金钱在荒岛上毫无用处。[同]benefitn. (一般用于否定句中)效用,利益,帮助[难点]to no avail 无效地,无结果without avail 无效地,无结果avail sb. 有利于某人Our efforts availed us nothing. 我们的努力均属无用。avail against… 对抵抗…起作用Nothing availed against the storm. 没有任何东西可以抵御暴风雨。avail oneself of… 利用…You should avail yourself of every opportunity to practise speaking English.你应该利用每一个机会练习说英语。availabilityn. 可用性,有效性;可得到(利用)的东西或人aviationn. 航空,航空学,飞行术axialadj. 轴的;轴向的;axisn. (pl.)axes轴线,轴,中心线;(解)枢椎,第二颈椎axlen. 轮轴,车轴the back axle of a bus公共汽车的后车轴bachelorn. 单身汉,单身a bachelor girl 自食其力的未婚女子n. 学士bechelor of Arts / Science 文/理学士baconn. 咸肉,熏肉badgen. 徽章,证章;标记,标志,象征;[同]symbolbafflevt. 使困惑,难住The question baffled me. 这个问题难住了我。[同]confusevt. 妨碍,阻挠They succeeded in -fling the enemy's attack.他们成功地阻止了敌人的进攻。vi.徒劳地挣扎; 折腾baffle with the storm徒然与暴风雨搏斗baitn. 饵 live bait 活饵n. (喻)引诱物[同]temptation(旅途中)休息[考点]rise to / jump at the bait 鱼吞饵;人入圈套balconyn. 阳台;(戏院或音乐厅的)楼座,楼厅baldadj. 秃的,无毛的,无叶的,无装饰的[同]bareadj. (喻)单调的,枯燥的a bald style of writing 单调的文体[同]dullballetn. 芭蕾舞剧;芭蕾舞剧演员总称a member of the ballet 芭蕾舞团的一名演员the ballet 芭蕾舞艺术bamboon.(pl.)bamboos竹子;竹杆,竹棍bandagen. 绷带,包带vt. 用绷带包扎bandage (up) a hand 用绷带包扎手[同]bindbanditn. (pl.) bandits,banditti土匪,强盗,歹徒[同]outlawbankern. 银行家;(赌场)庄家bankruptn. 破产者adj. 破产的;枯竭的,失败的;完全缺乏的be bankrupt of humor 毫无幽默可言vt. 使破产;使枯竭War had bankrupted the nation’s natural resources. 战争已耗尽了那个国家的自然资源。[难点]go bankrupt 破产be bankrupt in/of 完全缺乏…banquetn. 正式宴会give a banquet to sb.(或in sb.’s honour) 宴请某人[同]dinnerbarelyadv. 赤裸裸地,空乏地barely furnished rooms 几乎没有家具的房间adv. (仅仅)勉勉强强,几乎没有He barely escaped death. 他九死一生。[同]hardly ,scarcelybargen. 驳船;大游艇;(旗舰将官的)专用船vi. 冲撞,碰撞(某人或某物);笨重缓慢地移动vt. 用驳船运载[难点]barge into/against… 冲撞,碰撞barge in/into… 闯入,打扰,打断Stop barging into our conversation. 不要打断我们的谈话。barleyn. 大麦[难点]wheat 小麦oat (pl.)燕麦barometern. 气压计,晴雨表baronn. 贵族,男爵;工业巨商,大亨an oil baron 石油大王barrenadj. 贫瘠的,不毛的barren land 不毛之地[反]fertileadj. 不育的,不妊的,(植物)不结果的[同]unfruitfulbaseballn. 棒球;棒球运动basementn. 地下室bazarn. 集市,市场[同]marketplacen. 廉价商店beadn. 有孔的小珠子;水珠,滴beads of sweat 汗珠v. 用小珠装饰,把…连成一串,结珠,形成珠状Sweat beaded up on his forehead. 他额上渗出点点汗珠。bearingn. 关系,方面What he said has no much bearing on the subject.他所说的与本题没有太大关系。n. (常用复数)方位,方向;可忍耐限度,忍耐n. (常用复数)轴承beetlen. 甲虫;近视的人beforehandadv. 预先,事先Please let me know beforehand. 请预先通知我。[同]in advanceadv. 提前地adj. (一般作表语)预先准备好的;提前的,过早的[难点]be beforehand with 事先做好…;提前…When you go on a journey,it’s a good thing to be beforehand with your packing.你出门旅行的时候最好预先把行李包扎好。bestowvt. 给予,赠予He bestowed the highest honor on the man.他授予那人最高的荣誉。[难点]bestow …on/upon sb. 授予某人…bewarev. 当心,谨慎Beware of pick-pockets !当心扒手![同]watch out[难点]beware of sth. 当心beware 主要用于祈使句或以不定式形式出现Beware of the dog ! 当心那只狗。He told them to be beware. 他告诉他们要多加小心。bewildervt. 使困惑,使张慌失措He was bewildered by her question.他因她的质问而不知所措。[同]confusebidn. 报价,投标Will nobody make a higher/further bid ?再没有出更高的价吗?v. 出价,投标(bid ; bid)She bid 50 dollars for the camera. 那个照相机她出价50美元。[同]offerv. 吩咐,命令(bade ; bidden)They bade him (to)leave there. 他们命令他离开这里。[同]commandbishopn. 主教bitternessn. 苦味;辛酸,苦难Bear always in mind the bitterness of the old society.牢记旧社会的苦难。Blacksmithn. 铁匠,锻工blazen. 火焰,火光[同]flamen. 闪光,光彩,强烈的光the blaze of the sun 太阳的强光[同]glow(pl.)地狱Go to blaze ! 该死 !v. 发光彩,照耀The sun was blazing overhead.太阳在空中照耀。v. (使)燃烧,(使)冒火焰[难点]blaze up 勃然大怒;燃烧起来He was blazing up at an insult.他因受到侮辱而发怒。Blaze away 连续射击;继续燃烧bleachv. (使)漂白;(使)变白bleached linen 漂白的麻blondn. 金发白肤碧眼的人blousen. (妇女、儿童或水手穿的)短上衣,女衬衫blundern. 大错 commit a blunder 犯大错[同]mistakev. 犯大错,失策Our leaders have blundered again.我们的领导人又犯了大错。v. 乱闯,瞎闯blunder into a wall 瞎闯撞到了墙[难点]blunder away … 因愚蠢(或轻率)而失掉 …blunder on 一错再错;偶然碰上blushn. 脸红,愧色She turned away to hide her blushes. 她转身去掩饰她的脸红。v. 脸红,羞愧;使呈红色[难点]blush with /for/at sth. 因…而脸红She blushed for/with shame. 她羞愧得脸红。boilern. 锅炉,热水器,烧水壶bourgeoisadj. 资产阶级的,中产阶级的,平庸的n. (单复同)中产阶级;资产家boycottn.(联合)抵制,拒绝put a boycott on sb. 联合抵制某人vt. 联合抵制,联合拒绝boycott smuggling 联合抵制走私bracen. 支柱,支架,支撑[同]propvt. 支住,撑牢The struts are firmly braced. 那些支柱上得很牢固。[同]supportvt. 振奋[难点]brace up 打起精神,振作起来He braced himself up for the new task.他振作精神从事新任务。breakdownn. (精神,健康)衰竭,衰弱He’s suffering from a nervous breakdown 他正患神经衰弱。[同] failuren. 损坏,失灵an electricity breakdown 断电[同] failuren. 垮台,崩溃,破裂,失败a breakdown of negotiations 谈判的破裂[同]failurebriben. 贿赂offer bribes to sb. 向某人行贿accept / take a bribe from sb. 从某人处受贿v. 贿赂,行贿bribe a judge 贿赂法官[同]buy off bridegroomn. 新郎bridlen. 马笼头,马勒;束缚set a bridle on sb’s power 抑制某人的权力[同]boundvt. 抑制,约束He tried to bridle his temper. 他设法控制住脾气[同]restrainbrightnessn. 光辉,明亮;亮度;聪明briskadj. 轻快的,活泼的,敏捷的at a brisk pace 以轻快的步子[同]activeadj. 兴旺的do a brisk business 买卖兴隆brittleadj. 易碎的,脆弱的[同]crispbroadenv. 放宽,变宽,(使)扩大His face broadened into a grin. 他咧嘴而笑。[同]widenbronzen. 青铜;青铜色;青铜器broodn. 一窝(幼雏)[同]offspringv. 孵雏,孵蛋;盘算,沉思[同]meditate[难点]brood on/over … 思考…;沉思…She sat there brooding on whether life was worth living. 她坐在那里沉思是否值得活下去。bruten. 禽兽,畜牲[同]animaln. 残忍的人Buddhismn. 佛教,佛教教义budgetn. 预算,预算案vi. 预算(for)to budget for the coming year 为明年做预算buffalon. 水牛;野牛bugn. 虫,臭虫;**器vt. 装**器于,通过**器**buglen. 军号,喇叭v. 吹号,吹号召集bulln. 公牛,雄兽;买空的政权投机商bulletinn. 公告,告示a bulletin of news 新闻简报bumpn. 碰撞,撞击[同]clashn. 肿块 I’ve got a bump on my head. 我头上撞肿一块n. 隆起物,(路面)凸块;v. 碰(破);撞(伤)bump one’s head against sth. 头碰在东西上bureaucracyn. 官僚主义;官僚的总称burglarn. 夜盗,窃贼;[同]thiefburialn. 埋葬,葬礼a burial ground 墓地[同]funeraln. 坟墓;弃绝burnern. 以烧…为业的人a brick burner 烧砖工人n. 燃烧器,炉子,灯头,煤气头 busheln. 蒲式耳(谷物计量单位; 美国 Winchester bushel=35.238 升, 英国 Imperial bushel=36.368 升)[难点]hide one'slight [candle] under a bushel不露锋芒measure other people's corn by one's own bushel以己度人buttv. 抵触,碰撞butt against a tree in the dark 黑暗中撞在树上v. (口)插嘴,介入,打扰May I butt in ? 我可以打个岔吗?n. (盛酒或水的)大桶buzzn. 嗡嗡声,(蜂鸣器发出的)营营声v. (使)嗡嗡响;急速或兴奋地活动buzzing along the road 沿路急急而行[难点]buzz about / around 匆匆忙忙地来来去去buzz off 匆匆走掉或挂断电话bypassn. 旁路;(机)旁通管;(电)分路器vt. 走旁路,迂回,环绕,避开Let’s bypass that proposal. 我们别理那项提案了。by-productn. 副产品calculusn. (pl.)calculuses ; calculi(数)微积分;计算;(医)结石calibrationn. 刻度;校准,标定,口径测量canen. (竹等)茎;藤料,竹料a cane chair 藤椅n. 手杖,竹杖;capabilityn. 能力,才能;潜在才能The boy has great capability. 那男孩有很大的潜能。[难点]capability to do sth. = capability of doing sth. 做某事的能力capability for doing sth. 有…的可能capability for being improved 有可能改进capacitancen. (电)电容,电容量capacitorn. (电)电容器capen. 岬,海角the Cape of Good Hope 好望角n. 披肩,斗篷captiveadj. 被俘的,被监禁的They were taken captive.他们成了俘虏。adj. 被迷住的cartoonn. 漫画,动画片,连环画cartridgen. **筒,子弹;胶卷盒;(一卷)胶卷catalystn. 触媒,催化剂;刺激(或促进)因素categoryn. 种类,类别[同]classn. (哲)范畴catervi. 迎合,投合(for/to)v. (为…)供应酒菜cater a banquet 承办酒席[难点]cater for/to… 迎合TV programmes usually cater for all tastes. 电视通常提供各种不同趣味的娱乐节目。Catholicadj. 天主教的;广泛的,普遍的n. 天主教徒cautionn. 小心,谨慎do sth with caution 小心翼翼地做某事[同]prudencen. 警告[同]warningvt. 警告I cautioned him against being late. 我曾警告过他不要迟到。[难点]caution sb. not to do sth /caution sb. against (doing)sth 警告某人别做某事cautiousadj. 小心谨慎的[同]careful[难点]be cautious of / about doing sth. 留心be cautious not to do… 小心别…cavityn. 洞、穴a tooth cavity 龋齿的洞[同]holecensorvt. 审查,检查(新闻、书刊、电影、信件、电报等)The books were censored. 这些书已经检查过。[同]examinecerealn.(常用复数)谷物、谷类植物certaintyn. 肯定,必然We can have no certainty of success. 我们对于成功没有把握。n. 必然的事That’s a certainty. 那是确定的事。[难点]for (a)certainty 确定地,无疑地I know for certainty that… 我确实知道…characterizevt. 表示…的特征,描述…的性格Your work is characterized by lack of attention to details.你的工作的特点是不注意细节。[难点]be characterized as 被描绘成…charcoaln. 炭,木炭a stick of charcoal 一根木炭charityn. (pl.)慈善团体,慈善事业charmn. 魔力,魅力Her charm of manner made her very popular. 她的风度之优雅使她极受大家欢迎。[同]fascinationn.(pl.)美貌v.迷人,(使)陶醉We were charmed with the scencery. 我们陶醉在风景中。[同]fascinatev. 对…施魔法His words charmed away my troubles. 他的话驱走了我的烦恼。chartern. 宪章;契据;特权vt. 租,包(船,车等)They chartered a bus for the picnic. 他们包了一辆公共汽车出去野餐。[同]hirechatterv. 饶舌She was chattering over her work. 她工作时说个不停。[同]chatn. 唠叨,喋喋不休the chatter of children 孩子们的喋喋说话声cherishvt. 珍爱cherish one’s native land 爱祖国[同]treasurevt. 怀有cherish a hope 怀着希望vt. 抚育cherish a child 抚育孩子[同]nursechestnutn. 栗子,栗树;栗色chipn. 碎片;薄片chordn. (乐器的)弦[同]stringn. (音)和弦,和音v. 协调;弹奏;调…的弦,使和谐chorusn. 合唱,合唱队,合唱曲;齐声,一齐The proposal was greeted with a chorus of approval. 该项提议获得大家的齐声赞成。[同]accordv. 齐唱,齐声朗诵[难点]in chorus 一起,共同sing in chorus 齐声歌唱Christn. 基督cigarn. 雪茄烟circularn. 传单,通告[同]noticecirculationn. 运行,循环(尤指血液循环)Exercise is good for circulation. 运动对血液循环有好处。n. 流通,发行That book has been withdrawn from circulation. 该书已停止发行。n. 发行额,销数The magazine has a large circulation. 这杂志销路很广。n. (消息等的)流传,传播[难点]in ( out of ) circulation 在(不在)流通的Are there many forged banknotes in circulation ?有许多假币在流通吗?circusn. 马戏表演,马戏团;马戏场,杂技场citev. 引证,引用He cited another example.他引证另一例子。[同]quoteciviliann. 平民,市民,未在军中服役的人adj. 平民的,民用的He left the army and returned to civilian life. 他离开了军队,恢复平民生活。[同]civilclampn. 夹子,夹钳v. (用夹钳)夹住,夹紧clamp one’s mouth shut 紧闭着嘴clashn. 碰撞(声);不合,抵触a clash of views 见解不合v. 碰撞 [同]bumpv. 冲突My opinion clashed with his. 我的意见与他的意见冲突。[同]conflict[难点]clash into sb. 撞到某人身上clash with sb. over sth. 因某事与某人发生冲突clash with… 与…不协调,不一致claspv. 扣住,钩住clasp a bracelet round one’s wrist 将手镯扣戴在手上[同]fastenv. 紧握,紧抱classicn. 一流作家;经典著作adj. 古典的;第一流的;最优秀的[同]excellentclattern. (仅用单数)(马蹄的)得得声, (刀叉、碗碟等碰撞发出的)铿锵声, (机器转动时的)卡嗒声;嘁嘁喳喳的谈笑声;喧嚷, 骚动v. (使)发出长而连续的响声Don’t clatter your knives and forks. 不要让你的刀叉碰击作响。cleanlinessn. 清洁clearingn. (森林中的)空旷地;票据交换clientn. 委托人,当事人;顾客[同]customerclimaxn. 顶点,(小说,戏剧的)高潮bring matters to a climax 使事态发展到高潮cling ( clung , clung )vi 缠着,粘着,紧握The vine clung to its support . 这藤蔓缠绕在支持物上。[同]adherevi. 依附,依恋She’s the clinging sort. 她是那种老依靠他人的人。vi. 坚守,墨守,固执Why do they cling to the old custom ? 他们为什么要墨守陈规?[难点]cling to 粘着;紧握;靠近;坚持;依恋;萦绕不散cling together 粘在一起;互相忠诚clinicn. 诊所,医务室;临床教学,会诊clipn. 夹子,回形针v. 剪,修剪;clip a sheep’s hair 剪羊毛[同]cutv. 夹住,扣住 [同]claspv. 剪辑报刊cloakvt. 覆盖,掩盖[同]covervt. 掩饰,掩藏[同]concealclockwiseadv. /adj. 顺时针方向的(地)closetn. 小房间,私室;厕所;储藏室,壁橱clownn. (马戏、喜剧等的)小丑,丑角clustern. 串,簇,从a cluster of flowers 一簇花[同]bunchn.(指人,动物,物件等)群、组a cluster of spectators 一群观众vi. 群集,从生cluster round sb. 围绕着某人[同]assemblevt. 使成群cluster the tents together 把帐篷集中搭在一起clutchv. 抓,揪(住),捏紧A drowning man will clutch at a straw. 将要溺死的人连一根稻草也要去抓。[同]seizen. (尤用复数)控制,掌握;离合器[难点]be in / out of the clutches of … 在 / 不在…的控制中get into / out of the clutches of … 陷入/摆脱…的掌握co-efficientn. (数)系数,(物)率;协同因素coffinn. 棺材,灵柩coherentadj. 粘在一起的,结合在一起的[同] connectedadj. 连贯的,有条理的His speech was not coherent. 他的演说没有条理[同]consistentadj. (物)相干的,相参的。coincidevi. 相符合,相一致His opinion coincided with mine. 他的意见与我的一致。[同]accordvi. 同时发生,巧合[难点]coincide in… 在…方面一致coincide with sb./sth. 与…相符;与…巧合coken. 焦炭v. (使)焦化,(把…)炼成焦炭collaboratevi. 协作,合作,合著;勾结The Japanese collaborated with the Nazis. 日本人曾和纳粹分子勾结。[难点]collaborate on sth. With sb. 与某人合作(某作品)collaborate on a biography with afriend 与一朋友合著一部传记collaborate with 与…勾结collidevi. 碰撞The bus collided with a struck. 公共汽车与卡车相撞。[同]clashvi. 冲突[难点]collide with… 与…相撞,与…冲突colonialadj. 殖民的,殖民地的colonistn. 殖民地居民,殖民地开拓者combatn. 战斗,格斗(用作定语)a combat mission 战斗任务[同]fightv. 战斗,搏斗 [同]fight[难点]combat against / with … 与…斗争combat for … 为…而战斗They combat for freedom. 他们为自由而战。combustionn. 燃烧 [同]burningn. 骚乱comedyn. 喜剧,喜剧性事件[反]tragedycommencev. (正式用语)开始He has commenced studying / to study now. 他开始研究法律。[同]begincommendvt. 赞扬He commended soldiers for bravery. 他表扬士兵们勇敢。[同]praisevt. 推荐 [同]recommendvt. 托…保管commend sth. to sb’s care 将某事物托付给某人保管[同]entrust[难点]commend sb. on/upon sth. 因为…称赞某人commend someone upon his good manners 称赞某人有礼貌commend sb./sth. to sb. 向某人称赞…;向某人推荐…commend a man to his employers 向某人的雇主称赞某人commend sth. /sb. to … 把…交托给commodityn. 日用品,商品;农产品,矿产品commonplacen. 平常的事,老生常谈Travel by air is now a commonplace. 现在航空旅行是一件平常的事。adj. 平常的,平凡的,平庸的[同]ordinarycommonsenseadj. 有常识的,清楚明白的commonwealthn. 联邦(共和国)compactadj. 紧密的,结实的a compact bundle of clothes 一包塞得满满的衣服[同]denseadj. (文体)紧凑的,简洁的v. 使紧凑,压缩,便坚实comparableadj. 可比较的(with);比得上的(to);类似的[难点]comparable with / to … 可与…比较的,比得上…的His achievements are comparable with the best. 他的成绩可与最优者相比较。compatibleadj. 和谐共存的,一致的pleasure compatible with duty 不违背职责的行乐 (这个翻译很别扭 ----搏)[同]consistentadj. 兼容的[考点]be compatible with … 与…共存,与…一致Is beauty compatible with wisdom ? 美貌和智慧可以并存吗?compensatev. 补偿,弥补I’ll compensate you for your losses. 我将弥补你的损失。[同]make up forv. 酬报compensate sb. for his trouble 酬谢某人的辛劳[难点]compensate ( sb. ) for… 因…而赔偿(某人)Nothing can compensate for the loss of one’s health. 失去健康是无法补偿的。compensationn. 补偿(物),赔偿(金)He was paid a sum of money as a compensation for his loss in the flood.他得到一笔水灾损失的赔偿费。[难点]in compensation / by way of compensation / as a compensation for 对…的赔偿competitiven. 竞争者,比赛者,对手[同]rivalcomplaintn. 疾病a heart complaint 心脏病[同]diseasen. (律)控告,**complementn. 补充物Travel can be an excellent complement to one’s education.旅行能极大地增加一个人的学识n. 补语;(数)余数vt. 补充,补足[同]supplementcompletionn. 完成,完结You may occupy the house on completion of contract.买卖手续一完成,你就可以住进此房去了。n. 圆满,实现[同]realizationcomplexityn. 复杂性;复杂的事物complicationn. 复杂的状态,混乱,纠纷Here are further complications to worry us. 这里还有更多的复杂的事情困扰我们。n. 并发症complimentn. 恭维话,称赞I made / paid a compliment to Mary on her dress. 我称赞玛丽的衣服漂亮。n. (pl.)致意,问候With the compliments of the season. 恭祝圣诞!vt. 赞美,恭维[同]praisevt. 致意,祝贺[难点]compliment sb. on sth. 称赞某人某事pay sb. a compliment on sth. = pay a compliment to sb. on sth.(为某事)恭维某人complyvi. 依从,遵照We must comply with traffic rules. 我们必须遵守交通规则。[难点]comply with… 遵守…,服从…composern. 作曲家,作家,调解者compositeadj. 合成的,集成的,综合的[同]compoundadj. (建)混合式的n. 合成物,混合物[同]mixturen. 菊科植物comprehendvt. 理解,领会I did not comprehend his meaning. 我不明白他的意思。[同]understandvt. 包含,包括[同]includecompressionn. 压缩,浓缩compression of ideas 言简意赅compulsoryadj. 强迫的,强制的compulsory legislation 强制性立法adj. 必须做的,义务的a compulsory subject 必修科目compulsory military service 义务兵役[同]obligatoryconceitn. 自负,自高自大He is full of conceit. 他及其自负。[同]self-prideconceivev. 构想,设想He conceived a plan of stealing jewels. 他想出一个偷珠宝的计划。[同]think ofn. 怀孕 ;怀有(某种情感)conceive a friendship for sb. 对某人怀有友情[难点]conceive of 想出I can’t conceive of your allowing the child to travel alone.= I can’t conceive why you allowed the child to travel alone.我想不通你为什么让那孩子独自旅行。conceptionn. 概念,构想,想象;怀孕concertn. 一致,协调[难点]ni concert 一齐,一致in concert (with sb. ) (与某人)一起He is working inconcert with his colleagues. 他与同事协力工作。concessionn. 迁就,让步I must made a concession to him. 我必须对他让步。n. (退一步)承认concession to reality 承认现实confidentialadj. 秘密的,机密的confidential information 机密情报adj. 亲信的confirmationn. 证实,证明We are waiting for confirmation of the news. 我们正等着该消息的证实。[同]verificationn. 批准,确认[同]approval[难点]confirmation of … 对…的证实conformv. 遵守,符合conform to the law 遵守法律[同]complyv. 使相似,适应We must conform ourselves to the customs of society. 我们必须使自己适应社会的习俗。[难点]conform to / with 遵守…,适应…confrontvt. 使面临,使面对The war confronted the country with hardships. 战争使这个国家面临苦难。vt. 面对,面临The difficulties that confront us seem insuperable. 我们所面临的困难似乎是不可克服的。[同]encountervt. 与…相对My house confronts his. 我家和他家对门。[难点]confront sb. with sth. 使某人面对,面临conquerorn. 征服者,胜利者He is the conqueror of Mt. Everest.他是珠穆朗玛峰的征服者。consequentadj. 随之而来的,由…引起的the confusion consequent upon the strike 起因于罢工的混乱[难点]consequent on/upon 由…而起的consolen. 控制台,仪表板;(建)支托,托臂consolidatev. (使)巩固,(使)加强consolidate one’s position 巩固其地位[同] strengthenv. (使)联合起来consolidate debts 合并债务[同]uniteconstituentadj. 有权制定或修改宪法的a constituent assembly 立宪会议adj. 组成的a constituent part 组成部分n. 有选举权的人;要素,成份the constituents of happiness 幸福的要素constraintn. 强迫,强制act under constraint 受逼迫而行动[同]compulsionn. 拘束,紧张感feel / show constraint in a person’s presence在某人面前感觉/表现拘束n. 约束,限制financial constraints 财政限制[同]restrictionconsuln. 领事;(古罗马)执政官consumern. 消费者,用户contendvi. 竞争I contended with him for the prize.我和他竞争奖品。[同]competevi. 斗争He contended against his fate. 他与命运作斗争。[同]battlevt. 极力主张,坚信He contended that there must be life on the Mars.他坚信火星上一定有生物。[同]maintain[难点]contend with/against 与…斗争contend for … 争夺…contextn. 上下文,文章的先后关系Can’t you guess the meaning of the world from the context ?你不能从上下文猜出此词的意思吗?n. 来龙去脉,背景,环境continentaladj. 大陆的,大陆性的continental climate 大陆性气候n. 欧洲大陆人;(美国独立战争时的)大陆军士兵contradictv. 反驳,驳斥,否认Don’t contradict me ! 不要反驳我![同]denyv. 同…矛盾The reports contradict each other. 这些报告互相矛盾。controversyn. 争论,论战engage in (a) controversy with / against sb. (on/about sth.)与某人(关于某事)进行论战[同]argumentconvictionn. 确信,坚信,深信I have a strong conviction that he is a spy. 我确信他是个间谍。[同]assurance[考点]I speak in the full conviction that…. 我深深相信…cooperativeadj. 合作的,协作的;合作社的co-ordinateadj. 同等的,并列的n. 同等的人或物;(数)坐标vt. 使同等;使协调,调合co-ordinate ideas 协调各项意见correctlyadv. 正确地,合适地[同]rightlycorrelatev. (使)相互关联They find it difficult to correlate the two sets of figures / to correlate one set with the other.他们发现很难使这两组数字相互联系。[同]associaten. 相互关联的事物;相互依存的人[难点]correlate sth. with / to sth. 把某物与某物联系起来correlationn. 相互关系,相关性the correlation between climate and vegetation 气候与植物的相互关系correspondencen. 相符,一致,相似There is not much correspondence between their ideals and ours.他们的理想与我们的没有什么相似之处。n. 通信,信件He has a great deal of correspondence to deal with .他有大批信件要处理。[难点]in correspondence with 与…通信;与…相符I have been in correspondence with him about the problem.关于这问题,我和他一直书信往来。corrosionn. 腐蚀,侵蚀;锈,铁锈corruptadj. 腐化的,不道德的v. (使)腐败,贿赂,败坏The candidate corrupted voters. 这个候选人贿赂选民。[同]bribecosmicadj. 宇宙的a cosmic rocket 宇宙火**[同]universaladj. 广大无边的cosmosn. 宇宙[同]universen. 完整的体系;秩序,和谐couchn. 长沙发,睡椅,卧榻retire to one’s couch 就寝counseln. 忠告,劝告You had better follow his counsel. 你最好听从他的忠告。[同]advicen. (单复同)法律顾问,律师;协商,劝告vt. 劝告,忠告He counselled our acting at once. 他劝告我们立即行动。[同]advise[同]counsel (doing) sth 建议(做)某事counsel sb. to do sth. 劝告(建议)某人做某事hold/take counsel with sb. 听取某人的意见take counsel together 共同商议courageousadj. 勇敢的,无畏的It was courageous of him to oppose his chief. 他敢反对他的上司,真是勇敢。[同]bravecourteousadj. 有礼貌的,殷勤的(to)[同]politecourtesyn. 礼貌,谦逊,好意He is liked very much because of his courtesy.他由于彬彬有礼而颇得人们喜爱。[难点]be courtesy of 经…同意,由于…的好意,由…提供a radio programme presented by courtesy of …. 由…所提供的广播节目cowardn. 懦夫crabn. 蟹,蟹肉;(机)起重机,绞车;(the crab)巨蟹座;测航(航空)v. 捕蟹;(使)测航,(使)偏斜;责难,批评,抱怨cradlen. 摇篮,发源地Greece was the cradle of western civilization. 希腊是西方文明的发源地。[同]originn. 婴儿时期[难点]in the cradle 在幼小时from the cradle 自幼小时起from the cradle to the grave 从生到死crankn. 曲柄;古怪的人,奇怪的念头(或行为)v. 转动曲柄以发动,起动crank up an engine 开动引擎v. 把…弯成曲柄状;曲折行进The river comes cranking into the town. 那条河弯弯曲曲地流入镇里。crispadj. 脆的,易碎的[同]brittleadj. (头发等)卷曲的criterionn. (pl.)criteria / criterions准则,标准Success in money-making is not always a good criterion of real success in life.在赚钱方面的成功,不一定是人生事业真正成功的一个好标准。crookedadj. 弯曲的,歪的a crooked road 弯弯曲曲的路[同]curvingadj. 不诚实的,欺骗的crooked dealers 奸商adj. 弯腰曲背的an old man with crooked back 一个弯腰曲背的老人crueltyn. 残忍,残酷They treated the prisoner with great cruelty. 他们对待囚犯非常残酷。n. 残暴的行为cruisen. 巡游,巡航go on / for a cruise 乘船巡游[同]voyagev. 巡游(于),巡航(于)We cruised to Qingdao on vacation. 我们乘船到青岛去度假。v. (在公共场合)寻觅异性cuckoon. (cuckoos)杜鹃鸟,布谷鸟curlyadj. 卷曲的,有卷发的a curly-headed girl 头发卷曲的女孩currencyn. 货币foreign currencies 外币[同]moneyn. 流通,通用[难点]give currency to sth. 使…流行,传播currentlyadv. 通常地,普遍地;当前的,最近地It is currently reported that … 据最近报道…customaryadj. 通常的,习惯的,根据习惯的,符合惯例的It is customary to exchange gifts at Christmas. 圣诞节时人们互赠礼物是一种习俗。n. 惯例书,风俗志,礼法书cuttern. 用于切割的器械;从事切割工作的人(如服装裁剪师、影片剪辑师、采煤工等)cylindern. 圆柱体,圆筒;汽缸a six-cylinder car 六汽缸的汽车n. (数)圆柱,柱面;(装液化气的)钢瓶damnn. 诅咒[同]cursev. 诅咒I’ll be damned if I’ll go. 我要是去就不是人。[反]blessdatumn. (data)dazzlev. 眩目,炫耀be dazzled by bright light 因强光而目眩v. 眩惑,迷惑deafenvt. 使聋,震聋We were almost deafened by the uproar. 喧嚣之声使我们几乎什么也听不清。dealern. 商人,贩子a car dealer 汽车商[同]traderdeann. (大学,学院的)院长;教务长,系主任decentadj. 正派的,可敬的;合乎礼仪的,得体的decidedlyadv. 无疑地,明确地[同]positivelyadv. 果断地[同]decisivelydecimaladj. 十进制的,小数的decisiveadj. 决定性的,果断的[同]resoluteadj. 明确的declarationn. 宣布,宣告;宣言,声明declinev. 倾斜,下降[同]descendv. 衰弱,衰落[同]weakenv. 拒绝,谢绝decline an invitation to dinner 辞谢吃饭的邀请[同]refusen. 衰落,衰败fall into a decline 衰弱on the decline 衰退中[同]downfalldecomposev. (使)分解;(使)腐烂[同]decaydecorativeadj. 适于作装饰品的Holly,with its bright red berries,is very decorative. 冬青结有鲜红的果子,极适于作装饰物。adj. 装饰的decreen. 法令,政令[难点]issue a decree 下令rule by decree 依法令治理dedicatevt. 奉献,贡献;献身,致力于[同]devote[难点]dedicate oneself to sth. 献身,致力于…deemv. (正式用语)相信,认为He deemed that it was his duty to help others. 他认为助人是他的责任。[同]consider , believe[考点]deem highly of … 高度评价…deepenv. 加深,深化deepen a well 把井挖深defaultn. 不履行,违约;不到场win a game by default 因对方未到场而赢得比赛n. 拖欠v. 不履行;不到法庭应诉;不出场[难点]in default of 因为没有..., 因缺乏...deficiencyn. 不足,缺乏[同]shortagen. 不足之数量a deficiency of 5 dollars 缺少5美元n. 缺陷,缺点deficientadj. 缺乏的,不足的[同]shortn. 有缺陷的人或物[难点]be deficient in … 缺乏… = be lacking in definitionn. 定义,解说the definition of a word 字的定义;清晰度[难点]give a definition of 给…下定义deflectv. (使)倾斜,(使)转向The bullet struck a wall and was deflected from its course.子弹击中了墙壁,偏斜了方向。deflectionn. 偏斜,歪斜;偏转,偏差;垂度deformv. 使变形,损坏…的形状[同]distortdeformationn. 形状损坏;变丑;变形(物理)defyv. 公然反抗,违抗If you defy the law,you may find yourself in prison. 如果你不服从法律,你就有可能坐牢。v. 向…挑战[同]challengev. 蔑视[同]show no respect for[难点]defy sb. to do sth. 调激某人做某事(即相信他做不到或不愿做)I defy you to prove that I have cheated. 我敢说你不能证明我欺骗过。degradationn. 降级[反]elevationn. 堕落;退化(生物)degradev. (使)降级;(使)堕落degrade oneself by cheating 因欺骗而自甘堕落v. (使)退化delegaten. 代表[同]representativedeliberateadj. 深思熟虑的,蓄意的a deliberate lie 存心的谎言[同]intentionaladj. 审慎的,不慌不忙的a deliberate speech 从容而谨慎的演说deliberatelyadv. 审慎地,蓄意地denialn. 否认They didn’t admit his denial of guilt. 他们对他否认有罪不予承认。[同]negationn. 拒绝the denial of a request for help 拒绝他人的求助[同]rejection[难点]make a denial of … 否认…denotevt. 指示,表示[同]indicatevt. 意味着The sign x usually denotes an unknown quantity. 符号x通常代表一未知数。[同]meandenouncevt. 谴责,痛斥be denounced as a coward 被指责为懦夫[同]criticizevt. 揭发,告发denounce sb. as a spy 揭发某人为奸细[难点]denounce sb. to … 向…告发某人They denounced the man to the police. 他们向警方告发了那人。densityn. 浓密,密集the density of a forest / the population 森林的茂密/人口的稠密n. 密度(物理);愚钝dentistn. 牙医dependantn. 靠别人生活,眷属;侍从depositn. 存款,押金,保证金I drew 1,000 yuans from my deposit. 我从存款中提出一千元。n. 矿床oil deposit 油田depositionn. 免职,罢免;证言;淤积,沉淀depressionn. 沮丧,消沉He is suffering from mental depression. 他情绪很低落。n. (商业)不景气,萧条期[同]slumpn. 洼穴,坑[同]hollowdeprivevt. 剥夺,使丧失These trees deprive my house of light. 这些树遮住了我房屋的光线。[同]stripvt. 免去…的职务[难点]deprive sb. of… = sb. be deprived of … 剥夺某人的…They deprived him of his rights. 他们剥夺了他的权利。deputyn. 代理人act as a deputy for sb. 做某人的代理人[同]agentn. 代表,议员a deputy to the National People’s Congress 人大代表[同]representativeadj. 副的,代理的a deputy mayor 副市长[同]vice[难点]deputy for sb. 某人的代理人deputy to … 某(组织,机构等)的代理人derivationn. 引出,导出;起源,由来[同]origindescendantn. 子孙,后代,后裔[同] offspringdescentn. 下来,下降The descent is more difficult than the ascent. 上山容易下山难。[反]ascentn. 血统,世系He is a man of noble descent. 他出身名门。[同]ancestrydesignatevt. 指明,指出designate boundaries 表明界限vt. 指派,指定He designated Smith as his successor. 他指定史密斯为他的继承人。desolateadj. 荒芜的,荒凉的[同]desertedadj. 孤独的,凄凉的She lived a desolate life. 她过着凄凉的生活。[同]lonelydessertn. 甜食,点心destinevt. (常用被动)命中注定They were destined never to meet again. 他们命中注定将永不再见。[同]doomvt. 预定,指定[同]predeterminedestinyn. 命运grasp one’s destiny in one’s own hand 掌握自己的命运n. 天命,定数It was his destiny to die in a foreign country. 天命要他客死异邦。destructiveadj. 破坏性的,毁灭性的[同]ruinousdetachvt. 分开,拆开,解开detach a gear from a machine 从机器上拆下齿轮[反]attachvt. 派遣(军队等)A number of soldiers were detached to guard the refugees. 一些士兵被派遣去保护难民。detainvt. 耽搁,使延迟This question need not detain us long. 这个问题可以很快地解决。[同]delayvt. 拘留,扣留The suspect was detained. 这嫌疑人被拘留了。[同]arrestdetectiven. 侦探,密探detectorn. 探测器,侦查器deviatev. 背离,偏离[同]stray[难点]deviate from … 背离…deviate from a rule 与规则不符合deviationn. 背离,偏离;偏差或不合的事例或程度slight deviations of the magnetic needle 磁针略微的偏差devotionn. 献身,忠实,专心(to);深爱,热爱(for)devourvt. 狼吞虎咽地吃devour a dinner 狼吞虎咽She devoured the new detective story. 她一口气读完了那本新的侦探小说。vt. 吞没,毁灭The fire devoured the forest. 那场大火吞噬了森林。[难点]be devoured by 心中充满(好奇、忧虑等),被…吸引diagnosevt. 诊断The doctor diagnosed the illness as pneumonia. 医生诊断这病为肺炎。dictatorn. 独裁者,专制者dieseln. 内燃机,柴油机dietn. 饮食,食物;(因医疗原因)被限食的食物[难点]be on a diet 节食dignityn. 尊贵,高贵;尊严,威严[同]elegancen. 高官,高位[难点]stand upon / on one’s dignity 坚持礼仪,保持尊严beneath one’s dignity 有伤尊严,有失身份It is beneath your dignity to answer such a rude remark.回答这种粗野的话有失你的尊严。diminishv. 减少,减小[同]lessenv. 缩小,降低[同]decreasedinev. (正式用语)吃饭,进餐We dine at 7. 我们在七点吃饭。v. 设宴款待[难点]dine out 在外面吃饭I am dining out this evening. 今天晚上,我要在外面吃饭。dioxiden. 二氧化物(化学)diploman. (pl.) diplomas , diplomata毕业证书,文凭diplomaticadj. 外交上的;圆滑的,有手腕的[同]tactfuldirectoryn. 姓名住址录;电话簿disagreementn. 意见不合,不一致,不调和;意见不合的实例,争论,争执disappearancen. 消失,消散;失踪,绝迹disastrousadj. 灾难性的,造成惨重损失的a disastrous flood 损失惨重的水灾[同]fataldiscernv. 辨明,看出I discerned her figure in the dark. 我在黑暗中看到她的身影v. 觉察,了解disciplinevt. 惩戒,惩罚He was disciplined for cheating. 他因作弊而受罚。[同]punishdiscountn. 折扣They sell it at a discount of 30 percent. 他们打七折卖。[同]subtractionvt. 打折扣,打折扣卖Will you discount 10 percent ? 你们能打九折吗?[同]subtractvt. 不完全相信We should discount the news. 我们不应完全听信那消息。discoursen. 演说,谈话,论说,论文give sb. a discourse 给某人作演讲discriminationn. 辨别,区别;识别力,辨别力Some people do not show much discrimination in their choice of books.有些人看书不加选择。n. 歧视Is there racial discrimination in your country ?在你们国家有种族歧视吗?disgracen. 丢脸,耻辱,失宠There need be no disgrace in being poor. 贫穷并不足为耻。[同]shamen. 招致耻辱的人或物He is a disgrace to our school. 他是我们学校的耻辱。vt. 使蒙羞,使丢脸The scandal disgraced his family. 这丑行玷辱了他的家族。[同]dishonorvt. 使失宠[难点]bring disgrace on sb. 给某人带来耻辱A man who commits a crime and is sent to prison brings disgrace on himself and his family.因犯罪而进监狱的人给自己和家庭都带了耻辱。be in disgrace 蒙受耻辱,丢脸be a disgrace to 对…说来是一大耻辱disillusionn. 幻灭,觉醒,醒悟vt. 使幻灭,使觉醒They were disillusioned soon after they came to the new colony.他们到达新殖民地后不久就从幻想中觉醒了。dismayn. 灰心,沮丧[同]discouragementn. 惊慌He looked at me in dismay. 他惊慌地看着我。[同]panicvt. 使沮丧;使惊慌We were dismayed at the news. 听到这消息,我们感到惊慌。dispatchvt. 派遣,发送Please hurry up the dispatch of these telegrams. 请速将这些电报发出去。n. 快信,电讯,急件[难点]dispatch sb. to do sth. 派某人干某事dispersev. (使)分散,驱散The police dispersed the demonstrators. 警察驱散示威者。[同]scatterv. 散开,解散The crowd dispersed when the police arrived. 警察来时,群众散开。[同]dissipatev. 散步,传播The rumor was rapidly dispersed. 谣言很快就传开了。[同]spreaddisplacevt. 移置,转移[同]transfervt. 代替,取代Television has displaced radio. 电视以取代了收音机。[同]take the place ofdisplacementn. 转移,移置;取代,置换;撤职,免职displeasevt. 使不高兴,使生气displease one’s wife 使妻子不悦[难点]be displeased with sb. (for doing sth.)对某人(做某事)不高兴be displeased at sb.’s sth. 不满某人的…disregardn. 漠视,不顾,不注意disregard of a rule 忽视一项规则[同]indifferencevt. 不理,不顾,不管He disregarded his doctor's advice. 他不顾医生的忠告。[难点]disregard of sth. 或者 disregard for sth.dissatisfactionn. 不满,不平[难点]dissatisfaction with sb. / sth. 对某人(某事)不满dissatisfaction with sb. at doing sth. 对某人做某事不满dissipatev. 驱散,使(云、雾、疑虑等)消散dissipate fear/doubt/ignorancev. 浪费Don't dissipate your efforts. 不要浪费你的精力了。distinctlyadv. 明显地,清楚地,明晰地distinguishvt. 使杰出,使显出特色Diligence distinguished him from others. 勤勉使他有别于他人。[难点]distinguish oneself 使自己出名He distinguished himself on the battlefield. 他名扬沙场。v. 辨别;区别之意distinguish onething from another; distinguish from two thingsdistortvt. 扭曲His face was distorted with pain. 他的脸因痛苦而扭曲。[同]twistvt. 曲解,歪曲The reporter distorted the facts. 那记者歪曲事实。distortionn. 扭曲,歪曲,曲解distractvt. 分神,转移(注意力);迷惑,困扰[同]bewilder[难点]distract sb. from sth. 使某人分心The noise in the street distracted me from my reading. 街上的噪音使我不能专心读书。be distracted with/by sth. 为...所烦扰,被...弄糊涂(常被动)She was distracted at the news. 她因听到这消息而心烦意乱。disturbancen. 骚动,动乱Were there many political disturbances in the country last year ?这个国家去年有很多政治上的动乱吗?n. 打扰,干扰divergev. (道路)分叉;(意见)分歧;离题diverge to another topic 离开本题谈另一问题[难点]diverge from 与...意见分歧diversionn. 转向,改道the diversion of a stream 河流的改道n. 消遣,娱乐Chess and billiards are his favourite diversions. 国际象棋和台球是他最喜欢的消遣。divineadj. 神的,神圣的,神性的the Divine Being 神,上帝adj. (口)极好的,很美的a divine cap 一顶漂亮的帽子dizzyadj. 头晕眼花的,眩晕的dockn. 船坞v. 把...引入船坞doctrinen. 教义,教条,主义Christian doctrine 基督教教义n. 学说documentaryadj. 文件的,证件的documentary proof / evidence 文件证明adj. 记录的,纪实的domen. 圆屋顶,拱顶the great dome of St.Peter's 圣彼得大教堂的大园顶dominantadj. 统治的,支配的;占优势的;高耸的n. 主因,要素;主要的人或物dominatev. 支配,统治,控制(over)A great man can dominate over others by force of character.伟人能以人格的力量支配他人。v. 高出于,俯视doomn. (通常用单数)毁灭,死亡,厄运,劫数His doom is sealed. 他的劫数已定。[同]destinyvt. 注定,命定[同]destine[难点]be doomed to (do)sth.He was doomed to be poor / poverty. 他命中注定贫穷。doubtlessadv. 无疑地,必定;很可能地doven. 鸽(常指小野鸽,家鸽称作pigeon),斑鸠drainagen. 排水,疏水;排水系统,下水道;排出的污水drasticadj. 激烈的,猛烈的a drastic remedy 烈**物[同]violentadj. (法律等)严厉的,极端的take drastic measures 采取严厉措施[同]severedrawbackn. 缺陷,障碍,不利(to);退关税dreadfuladj. 可怕的a dreadful disaster 可怕的灾难[同]frightfuladj. 讨厌的What dreadful weather ! 多么讨厌的天气![同]unpleasantduken. 公爵;(欧洲王国的)君主duplicaten. 复制品,副本,抄件[同]copyvt. 复制 [同]copyvt. 使加倍 [同]doubleadj. 复制的;双倍的,二重的dwarfn. 矮子,侏儒,矮小的动植物dwellvi. 居住 [同]residevi. 详述;凝思,细想[难点]dwell in/at 居住She dwells in the country. 她住在乡下。Dwell on/upon 细想;详述Don’t dwell on your trouble. 不要老是想着你的苦恼。He dwelt on the importance of education. 他详论教育的重要性。Dynamon. 发电机;精力充沛的人earn. 穗corn in the ear 正在长穗的玉米earningsn. 工资收入He has spent all his earnings. 他把赚来的钱都花光了。n. 利润,利益[同]profitearthenwaren. (用作定语)陶器an earthenware casserole 陶制烤锅eastwardadj. 向东in an eastward direction 向东方eclipsen. 月蚀,日蚀ecologyn. 生态学economicallyadv. 节约地,节俭地;在经济上economicsn. (与单数动词连用)经济学;(国家)经济状况,经济活动editvt. 编辑,编edit a newspaper 编辑一份报纸vt. 剪辑(影片、录音等)editorialadj. 编辑的the editorial office 编辑部n. 社论Egyptianadj. 埃及的;埃及人的;埃及语的n. 埃及人;埃及语ejectv. 强迫(某人)离开(某地)They were ejected because they had not paid their rent for a year.他们因一年未付房租而被赶了出去。v. 喷出,射出lava ejected from a volcano 自火山喷出的熔岩elapsevi. (时间)经过,消逝Three months have elapsed since he left home.他离家已经三个月了。n. (时间的)消逝elbowvt. 挤进(与through,forward等连用)elbow one’s way through a crowd 自人群中挤过(shoulder亦可用作此义)electriciann. 电工,电器技师,电学家electroden. 电极,电极棒eletronicsn.(与单数动词连用)电子学elegantadj. 优雅的,优美的elegant manners 文雅的举止[同]gracefuladj. 精致的,精美的an elegant dress 精致的衣服[同]delicateelementaladj. 自然力的;基本的n. (常用复数)基本原理elevatevt. 抬起,升高He elevated the blind. 他卷起窗帘。[同]liftvt. 提高,振奋(精神等)an elevating book 一本激励人心的书[同]upgradeelevationn. 提高,举起elevation to the peerage 晋升为贵族n. 高尚,庄严elevation of thought / style / languae 思想(风格、语言)的高尚n. 高度(尤指海拔)an elevation of 2000 metres 海拔2000米ellipticadj. 椭圆(形)的;省略的an elliptical sentence 含有省略的句子[同]omittedeloquencen. 口才,雄辩[同]expressivenessembassyn. 大使馆;大使的职务embodyvt. 体现,使具体化embody one’s ideas in a speech 在一篇演说中体现出个人的思想vt. 包含,收录embroideryn. 刺绣(品)emigratevi. 自本国移至他国His family emigrated from Italy to America. 他的家从意大利移居到美国。emissionn. (光、热、气味等的)散发、发射;散发物,发射物empiricaladj. 经验主义的enchantvt. 使心醉,使喜悦I was enchanted with/by her song. 她的歌声令我陶醉了。[同]charm , delightvt. 施魔法于,蛊惑The witch enchanted the princess. 这巫婆对公主施了魔法。enclosuren. 围绕,圈地,围场,包围;附件,封入物endangervt. 危害,危及,使遭到危险You will endanger your health if you smoke. 吸烟将会危害你的健康。endeavorn. 努力,力图Please make every endeavor to be early. 请尽量早点。[同]effort , attemptvi. 努力,试图[同]try[难点]do one’s endeavors 尽力,竭力make every endeavor 尽一切努力endowvt. 捐赠(金钱、财产等)endow a school 捐助基金办一学校vt. (被动)赋有(资质等),赋予,授予be endowed by nature with great talents 赋有很大的才能[难点]be endowed with … 赋有…,被赋予…He is endowed with literary talent. 他有文学天赋。endurancen. 忍耐(力)He came to the end of his endurance. 他忍无可忍。[同]tolerancen. 持久(力)endurance test 耐力测验[同]persistence[难点]past/beyond endurance 忍无可忍energeticadj. 有力的;精力充沛的He is always energetic. 他总是充满活力。[同]vigorousenergizevt. 给…能量;加强[同]strengthenengagementn. 约会,约定I have numerous engagements for next week. 我下周有很多约会。[同]daten. 婚约Their engagement was announced in the papers. 他们订婚的消息登报了。n. 战争,交战[同]battleenhancevt. 提高,增加(价值,吸引力,力量,价格等)[同]intensifyenlightenvt. 启发,开导,教导Can you enlighten me on this subject ? 你能在这个问题上开导我一下吗?enrichvt. 使丰富,使肥沃enrich the mind (with knowledge) (用知识)充实心智vt. 改进(品质,味道等)enrollvt. 登记,招收enroll sb. as a member of a society / club 登记某人为会员enroll new students 招收新生vi. 参军,注册[难点]enroll sb. in 在…注册enroll sb. as 登记为…成员enterprisen. 事业,企业entertainmentn. 招待,款待give an entertainment to sb. 招待某人n. 娱乐,表演This is a serious novel,not an entertainment. 这是一本严肃的小说,不是供消遣的。[难点]find entertainment in … 以…为乐entreatvt. 恳求,请求He entreated me for help. 他求我帮忙。[同]plead[难点]entreat sb. to do sth. 恳求某人做某事entreat sth. of sb. 向某人恳求某事environmentaladj. 环境的,环境产生的envelopvt. 包,封be enveloped in a blanket 用毯子裹住[同]wrapvt. 围绕,包围Fogs enveloped the hill. 雾笼罩着山。[同]encloseepisoden. (作品的一段)情节,插曲[同]eventepochn. (新)纪元,(新)时代The teaching method marked a new epoch in education.这种教学方法开创了教育的新纪元。[同]eraequatorn. (加the)赤道equilibriumn. 平衡,均衡,均势maintain / lose one’s equilibrium 保持(失去)平衡[同]balanceerosionn. 侵蚀,腐蚀soil erosion 土壤侵蚀errandn. 差使I sent him on an errand. 我派他去出差。[难点]go on errands for sb. 为某人去办事run errands for sb. 为某人去跑腿escortn. 护卫队,护送者The queen has a large escort. 女王有庞大的护卫队。vt. 护送,护卫,护航He escorted this young lady home. 他护送这位小姐回家[同]accompanyessencen. 本质,要素The two things are the same in outward form but different in essence.那两样东西在外表上相同,但在本质上不同。[同]naturen. 精,浓汁essence of peppermint 薄荷精[难点]in essence 本质上,大体上estaten. 房地产,地产He owns large estates. 他拥有大批地产。eternaladj. 永久的,永恒的,永远的[同]everlastingevenlyadv. 一致地,同样地;平静地;恰好地,整整地everlastingadj. 永久的,永恒的excelv. 胜过,优于He excels all of us in/at tennis. 他网球打得比我们所有的人都好。v. 杰出,出色Mary excels as a teacher of dancing. 玛丽是个出色的舞蹈教师。ExceptVt. 把…除外,不计All of us,nobody excepted,agree to his suggestion. 我们大家,无人例外,均赞同他的建议。exceptionaladj. 异常的,例外的,特殊的;优越的excessivelyadv. 过度地,极端地exclamationn. 叫喊,感叹,惊叹an exclamation mark 感叹号exclusiveadj. 排他的,限制严格的;专有的,独占的We have the exclusive right to sell them. 我们有出售它们的专有权。adj. 孤傲的,罕有的[难点]exclusive of … 不计…在内It costs 300 yuan,exclusive of postage. 它值300元,邮费不计。executionn. 实行,实施,完成;演奏,技巧,手法;处死刑[难点]carry / put into execution实行,实施,完成do execution 奏效,见效exemplifyvt. 举例说明[同]illustrateexilen. 流放,放逐be / live in exile 过流亡生活n. 被放逐者vt. 流放,放逐[难点]send sb. into exile 流放某人exile sb. from … 将某人从…逐出expeditionn. 远征队,探险队;远征,探险They went on an expedition to the Antarctic. 他们去南极探险。[同]journeyexpendituren. 花费,使用;支出额,消费额,经费expelvt. 驱逐,开除,逐出He was expelled from school.[同]exile[难点]expel sb. from 将某人从…逐出experimentallyadv. 实验上地,试验性地experimentationn. 试验,实验expirevi. 到期,(期限)终止When does your driving licence expire ? 你的驾驶执照何时到期?explicitadj. 明晰的,清楚的,明确的[同]specific , definite[难点]be explicit about … 对…明确表态He was quite explicit about the matter. 他对此事明确地表明了态度。explorationn. 探测,探究,探查expositionn. 说明,讲解,解释[同]explanationn. 展览(会),陈列an industrial exposition 工业展览[同]exhibitionextinctadj. 熄灭的,不再活动的an extinct volcano 死火山adj. 绝种的,死绝的an extinct species 已灭绝的物种adj. (感情等)绝灭的extinguishvt. 熄灭(灯、火等)Water extinguished the fire. 水扑灭了火。vt. 消灭extractvt. 取出,拔出;提取,榨;摘录,选取n. 榨出物,精,汁;摘录extractionn. 拔取,拔出extraordinarilyadv. 非常地,格外地,特别地extravagantadj. 奢侈的,浪费的[同]wastefuladj. 过度的extravagant praise 过分的赞扬fabricatevt. 建造,制造,装配;捏造,伪造[同]fakefabricationn. 制作,装配;捏造,伪造facilitatevt. 使容易,使便利Modern inventions have facilitated housework. 现代发明使家务操作便利了。vt. 推进,促进facilityn. 熟练,灵巧I admired his facility in playing the guitar. 我羡慕他弹吉的熟练。[难点]have great facility in … 有…的才能show facility in … 在…中表示熟练factionn. 派系,亲派,小集团faken. 假货,伪造物,冒充者The antique is a fake. 那古董是一件赝品。vt. 伪造The whole story has been faked (up). 整个故事都是杜撰的。adj. 假的,伪造的fake diamonds 伪造的钻石fallv. 变成,成为They have fallen poor. = They have fallen into poverty. 他们贫穷了。[难点]fall in love (with) 喜爱,爱上fantasticadj. 奇异的,怪诞的fantastic dreams 怪异的梦adj. 异想天开[同]fancifuladj. 奇妙的She is a really fantastic girl ! 她真是个奇妙的女孩!fascinatevt. 迷住,强烈吸引I was fascinated by/with her beauty. 我被她的美貌迷住了。[同]attractfastenern. 纽扣,扣件a zip fastener 拉链faultlessadj. 无缺点的,无过错的,无可指责的[同]errorlessfearlessadj. 大胆的,无畏的[同]bravefellvt. 砍倒,打倒He felled his enemy with a single blow. 他一拳将他的敌人打倒了。fellowshipn. 友谊,交情,伙伴关系offer sb. the hand of fellowship 向某人伸出友谊之手n. 团体,联谊会admitted to fellowship 被准许入会feminineadj. 女性的,女子气的a feminine voice 女人似的声音[反]masculinefencevi. 击剑n. 击剑(术)ferrousadj. 铁的,含铁的ferryn. 渡船,渡河(海)用的飞机;渡口v. 渡运ferry people across a river 用船渡人过河fightern. 战士,斗争者,奋斗者;战斗机;(职业)拳击手filamentn. 细丝;灯丝filthn. 污物,污秽,肮脏The pond was filled with filth. 这池塘充满了污物。[同]dirtfinelyadv. 细微地;美好地,华丽地finely dressed 衣着华丽[同]splendidlyfiniteadj. 有限的Human understanding is finite. 人类的理解力是有限的。[反]infinitefireplacen. 壁炉fireworkn. 烟花,爆竹[同]crackerfirmnessn. 坚固,坚定,稳定first-rateadj. 第一流的,最佳的[同]first-classfissionn. 分裂,裂变fitnessn. 适当,合适(与for连用);健康a national fitness campaign 国民健康运动[同]healthfittingadj. 适合的,恰当的[同]suitablen. 试穿,试衣go to the tailor’s for a fitting 去裁衣店试衣n. (用复数)家具,设备,固定装置office fittings 办公室设备n. 配件,附件fixturen. 装置物, 定位器; 支架; 固定物;【机】装置器, 工件夹具[pl. ]【律】(不动产的)固定附着物(房屋、树木等)【商】定期放款, 定期存款运动会举行日; (预先规定日期的)比赛项目固定在某地[某项工作]的人volley ball fixtures预定日期的排球赛fixture in the university一直固定在大学任教flaken. 薄片,雪片Snow was falling in flakes. 雪片霏霏地下着。Flamevi. 发火焰,燃烧His face flamed with anger. 他气得面红耳赤。[同]blazevi. (强烈地、激情地)爆发His anger flamed out. 他勃然大怒。[同]burst[难点]flame with rage 勃然大怒flankn. 肋腹,腰窝The horse’s flanks are hurt. 这马的两边册腹受伤了。n. (建筑物或山的)侧面flanneln. 法兰绒flapn. (口袋等的)垂下物,帽边the flap of a pocket 衣袋的口盖n. 拍打(声),振翅(声)We heared the flaps of the sail against the mast. 我们听见帆拍击着船桅的声音。v. 拍打,摆动The heron came flapping over the water. 那只苍鹭拍打着翅膀从水面上飞来。[同]waveflaren. 闪耀,闪烁the flare of torches 火把摇曳的火焰[同]flashn. 闪光信号v. (衣裙等)张开;闪耀,闪烁The candle began to flare. 烛光开始摇曳。v. 勃然大怒,突然爆发flaskn. 细颈瓶,烧瓶;水瓶[同]thermosflattenv. 使平,变平flatten ( out ) a piece of metal by hammering it 将一块金属锤平The hills flatten ( out ) here. 群山在这里变得平缓了。flattervt. 奉承,阿谀You must not flatter the rich. 你不可谄媚有钱人。vt. 取悦,使高兴I am / feel greatly flattered by your invitation to address the meeting.蒙你邀请在这会上演说,我非常愉快。[同]please[难点]flatter oneself that 自以为,自认为flawn. 缺陷,瑕疵flaws in a jewel / a person’s character 珠宝(人格)上的瑕疵[同]defectn. 裂缝[同]splitfleev. 逃跑,逃离They all fled from the buring building. 他们都从着火的楼里逃了出来。[同]escapev. 消散[同]disappearflingv. 猛投,抛fling a stone at sb. / sth. 向某人或某物掷石头[同]throw[难点]fling the door open 猛然推开门fling oneself against / on… 猛扑向…have one’s / a fling 恣意行乐floatn. 浮子,浮标The float is made of cork. 这个浮标是用软木做的。fluctuatevi. 波动,起伏fluctuating prices 波动的物价[同]wavefluctuationn. 波动,起伏fluctuation in the exchanges rates 兑换率的波动flushv. (面孔)发红,变红Her face flushed. = She flushed up. 她的脸发红。v. 冲洗,冲刷flush the drains 冲洗阴沟[同]cleanv. 使兴奋They were flushed with victory. 他们因胜利而兴奋。adj. 齐平的doors flush with the walls 与墙齐平的门户[同]leveladj. 很多的,富裕的n. 脸红,兴奋,激动She showed a flush of shame. 她因羞愧而脸红。[难点]flush with… 因…脸红be flush with… 与…平齐flutterv. (鸟)鼓翼,拍翅The bird fluttered its wings in the cage. 那只鸟在笼中拍着翅膀。v. 飘动The flag fluttered in the breeze. 旗帜在微风中飘动。fluxn.(单数)流出,流动;连续的改变in a state of flux 不断改变中n. 流量,通量(物理)v. 熔融;大量地流出foamn. 泡沫,涎沫The waves break into foam against the rocks. 海浪冲击岩石而形成泡沫。vi. 起泡沫a glass of foaming beer 一杯起泡的啤酒followvt. 从事,经营follow the law 当律师flollow the trade of a builder 从事建筑业[同]carry onfollowern. (契据的)附页footpathn. 小路,小径,人行道foreadj. (定语)前面的in the fore part of the train 在火车的前部adv. 在前面,在船头n. 前部,船头[难点]to the fore 在手头,突出,显著foreignadj. 无关的,不相关的[难点]be foreign to … 与…不相关Lying is foreign to his nature. 说谎不是他的本性。foreseevt. 预知,预见He foresees that things will go well. 他预见事情会进展顺利。formerlyadv. 以前,从前Formerly this harbor was prosperous. 从前这个港口很繁荣。formidableadj. 可怕的,令人生畏的a man with a formidable appearance 面目可怕的人[同]fearfuladj. 难以克服的,艰难的formidable obstacles 难以克服的障碍formulatevt. 用公式计算;明确地表达formulate one’s thoughts 明确表达个人的思想formulationn. 公式表示;明确表达forsakevt. 遗弃,抛弃His friends forsook him when he became poor. 当他贫困时,他的朋友们背弃了他。[同]desertfortn. 堡垒,要塞forthcomingadj. 即将到来的,即将出现的[同]approachingadj. (表语)现成的,随要随有的;肯帮忙的fortressn. 堡垒,要塞,城堡forumn. 讨论会,论坛TV is an accepted forum for the discussion of public affairs. 电视是公认的讨论公共事务的论坛。fossiln. 化石fostervt. 抚养,养育foster a child 养育孩子[同]breedvt. 培养,促进fouladj. 肮脏的Foul air injures the health. 污浊的空气有害健康。[同]filthyadj. 丑恶的,罪恶的What a foul crime it was ! 那是多么邪恶的罪行![同]wickedfowln. 鸡,鸟,家禽keep ( domestic ) fowls 养鸡(家禽)[同]poultryfracturen. 折断,断裂,破碎;骨折compound fractures 复合骨折v. 折断,破碎fracture one’s leg 折断腿[同]break , crackfragileadj. 脆的,易碎的fragile china 易碎的瓷器[同]delicateadj. 体质虚弱的[同]weakfragrantadj. 香的,芬芳的[同]perfumedadj. 愉快的,甜蜜的fragrant memories 甜蜜的回忆frailadj. 脆弱的,虚弱的a frail child 体质虚弱的孩子[同]fragilefreightn. 运费freight paid 运费已付freshenv. (使)新鲜,(使)复活feel freshened up after a shower 淋浴后感到舒畅fretv. (使)烦恼,(使)焦急Don’t fret over trifles. 勿为琐事烦恼[同]annoyv. 腐蚀,磨损fretted rope 磨损了的绳子frightn. 惊吓,恐怖take fright (at sth.)(因某事)吃惊[同]fear[难点]give sb. a fright 使某人大吃一惊frightfuladj. 可怕的,令人恐怖的[同]dreadfulfringen. 边缘[同]edgen. 须边,流苏vt. 作为…的边缘a roadside fringed with trees 植有树的路边[难点]on the fringe of … 在…边缘froadv. 往,去,回,向后She walked to and fro. 她来回地走着。frockn. (女)上衣,(童)外衣;僧袍frustratevt. 挫败,使灰心The bad weather frustrated all our hopes of going out. 坏天气使我们外出的希望彻底破灭了。furiousadj. 狂暴的,猛烈的,狂怒的a furious storm 猛烈的暴风雨[同]violent[难点]be furious with sb. 对某人狂怒be furious at sth. 对某事发火furyn. 狂暴,(尤指)愤怒fusen. 保险丝;导火索v. 溶合,熔化fussn. 忙乱,大惊小怪,急躁v. 小题大做,(使)为琐事烦扰[难点]make a fuss over / about … 对…大惊小怪Don’t make a fuss about / over trifles. 不要为区区小事而大惊小怪。fuss about / over 为…烦扰Don’t fuss over the children so much. 不要为孩子们过于操心。gamblev. **,打赌He has gambled away half his fortune. 他**输去了一半的财产。v. 投机,冒险n. **,投机take a gamble(on sth.) 冒险[难点]gamble on … 把赌注压在…上gamble on horses **gamble in … 投机买卖gangstern. 歹徒,匪徒gangster films 警匪片garlicn. 大蒜,蒜头a clove of garlic 一瓣蒜头garmentn. 衣服the garment industry 制衣工业gaspn. 喘气He was at his last gasp. 他奄奄一息了。v. 喘气gasp for breath 喘息v. 气喘吁吁地说[同]pant[难点]gasp out 喘着气说出He gasped out a few words. 他喘着气说出几句话。gasp in / with surprise at … 因…而惊讶不已gasp for … 渴望gatheringn. 聚集,集会a public gathering 公共集会[同]meetinggearn. 齿轮,传动装置;汽车的排档v. 调整,使适合[同]adjust[难点]gear … to … 使…适应于be geared to … 适应于…generalizationn. 一般化,归纳,概括It is unwise to be hasty in generalization. 急于归纳是不明智的。generalizev. 推广,普及generalize the use of a new invention 推广一种新发明的使用v. 归纳,概括generalize a conclusion from a collection of instances or facts 从一些事例或论据中得到结论generosityn. 慷慨,大度show generosity in dealing with POW geographicaladj. 地理学的geologyn. 地质学geometricadj. 几何学的gesturevi. 做手势[同]gesticulategiganticadj. 巨大的,庞大的a gigantic enterprise 庞大的企业[同]hugegingern. 姜,生姜gleamn. 微光,闪光A gleam of light shone through the window. 一丝微光从窗口透入。adj.(希望、机智的)闪现a gleam of hope 一线希望vi. 发微光,隐约闪光The moon gleamed upon the lake. 月光从湖面上闪烁。[同]glimmerglidern. 滑翔机globaladj. 球形的,球面的;全球的,世界的a global war 全球战争adj. 总括的,完全的glorifyvt. 颂扬,赞美[同]praiseglossaryn. 词汇,语汇gnawv. 咬,啃He was gnawing his finger-nails with impatience . 他焦灼地咬着他的指甲。[同]bitev. 使苦恼,使痛苦Anxiety is gnawing ( at ) his heart. 他正忧心如焚。[同]tormentgoddessn. 女神goodnessn. 善良,美德goodness of heart 心地的善良n. 精华;(感叹句)老天爷Goodness me ! 天啊!Thank goodness ! 谢天谢地[难点]have the goodness to do sth. (恳)请做某事Have the goodness to come this way,please. 请从这边走。gorillan. 大猩猩gorgeousadj. 绚丽的,豪华的,灿烂的The peacock spread his gorgeous tail. 孔雀展开它华丽的尾巴。[同]magnificentgossipn. 闲话,流言蜚语Don’t believe all the gossip you hear. 不要相信你听到的一切闲话。n. 闲谈,聊天have a good gossip with a neighbour 与邻居愉快地聊天n. 爱说闲话的人;随笔,漫谈grabvt. 攫取,抢夺He grabbed my wallet. 他抢了我的钱包。[同]seizevi. 企图攫取This baby grabbed at the ball. 这婴儿企图抓住那个球。graciousadj. 谦和的,有礼貌的It was gracious of her to come. 蒙她驾临,不胜感激。adj. 宽厚的,仁慈的[同]kindadj. 优美的,雅致的[同]elegantgradientadj. 倾斜的[同]slantedn. 斜坡,坡道;坡度,斜率,梯度gramophonen. 留声机,唱机graniten. 花岗岩graphiten. 石墨grasshoppern. 蚂蚱,蝗虫grassyadj. 长满草的,草多的;像草的;(动物)食草的gratefuladj. 令人愉快的,悦人的[同]pleasantgraveln. 沙砾,石子a gravel path 碎石路vt. 铺碎石于gravel a road 在路上铺碎石grazevt. 放牧(牛、羊等)graze sheep 放羊vi. (牛、羊等)吃草graze in the pasture 在牧场上吃草greasen. 油脂,脂肪;润滑油vt. 涂油脂于…greedn. 贪婪,贪心[同]avaricegriefn. 悲痛,悲哀[同]sorrown. 令人悲伤的事[难点]bring sb. to grief 使某人不幸,使某人遭受失败grimadj. 严厉的,残忍的a grim struggle 生死之争[同] severeadj. 可憎的,讨厌的a grim smile 狞笑grinv. 露齿而笑grin from ear to ear 咧着嘴笑grindv. 折磨The old man was ground ( down ) by poverty. 这位老人饱受了贫困的折磨。[难点]be ground by … 受…的折磨grooven. 沟,槽;唱片上的纹路vt. 开槽于gropev. 摸索,搜寻[难点]grope fro … 摸着找…grope the light switch 摸索着找电灯开关grope one’s way 摸着走We groped our way along the dark corrider. 我们在黑暗的走廊上摸着走。groven. 树丛,小树林growlv.(狗等)嗥叫,(炮等)轰鸣We heard thunder growling in the distance. 我们听见远处隆隆的雷声。v. 咆哮着说She growled ( out ) her answer. 他咆哮着回答。n. 轰鸣,嗥叫,咆哮The dog gave a low growl. 那狗发出低沉的咆哮声。grumblev. 抱怨,鸣不平He grumbled at the low pay offered to him. 他抱怨他的报酬太低。v. 抱怨地说出grumble ( out ) a reply 抱怨地回答n. 怨言,不平That fellow is full of grumble. 那家伙满腹牢骚。[难点]grumble at / over / about sth. 抱怨…grumble (out) sth. 抱怨地说出…gruntv.(猪等)打呼噜,(人)发出哼声(表示不满、厌烦等);咕哝地说出grunt (out)an answer 咕哝着回答guiltn. 犯罪,罪状,有罪The guilt of the accused man was in doubt. 被告的罪名有疑问。guitarn. 吉他,六弦琴gustn. 突然一阵狂风The wind was blowing in gusts. 狂风阵阵吹来。n. 突然一阵(雨、烟、火等)[同]burstn.(感情的)迸发[同]eruption[难点]a gust of .. 一阵…guttern. 沟,阴沟,街沟;水槽,檐槽;(加the)贫民区He was bred in the gutter. 他生长在贫民区里。Hailv. 招呼Let’s hail a taxi,shall we ? 我们叫一辆出租车好吗?v. 欢迎,向…欢呼The people hailed the hero. 人们向英雄欢呼。[同]greet[难点]hail from 来自Where does the ship hail from ? 这艘船来自何处?halvevt. 平分,分成两半halve an apple 将苹果分成两半vt. 减半The newest planes have halved the time needed for crossing the Atlantic.最新式的飞机使横越大西洋所需的时间减少了一半。hamn. 火腿hams hanging on hooks 挂在钩子上的火腿n. 火腿肉a ham sandwich 火腿三明治hampervt. 阻碍,妨碍His overcoat hampered his running. 他的外套妨碍他跑步。[同]hinderhandbookn. 手册,指南[同]guidehandicapn. 障碍,不利条件Lack of education is a handicap to him. 缺乏教育是他的不利因素。[同]disadvantagevt. 妨碍,使不利Though handicapped by poor health,he persisted in studying.他虽然身体不好,还是坚持学习。handoutn. 散发的传单,(免费的)印刷品;施舍物;(给报界的)声明hardyadj. 强壮的,能吃苦的;勇敢的,用于面对危险的;(植物)耐寒的harmoniousadj. 协调的a harmonious group of buildings 一片排列协调的建筑物adj. 和谐的,和睦的harmonious families 和睦的家庭adj. 悦耳的harpn. 竖琴play the harp 弹竖琴hatchvt. 谋划(计策等)[同]make upvt. 孵出hatch chickens 孵小鸡n.(飞机等的)小门,舱口haughtyadj. 傲慢的,骄傲的,轻蔑的[同]arroganthaulv. 拖曳,用力拖They hauled the boat up the beach. 他们把船拖到岸上。[同]draghauntn. 常去的地方rivisit the haunts of one’s schooldays 重游学生时代常去的地方[同]resortvt. 常去[同]frequentvt.(指鬼和幽灵)常出没于The old castle is said to be haunted. 那座古堡据说闹鬼。vt. 萦绕心头A wrongdoer is constantly haunted by fear of discovery. 做恶者经常提心吊胆,生怕被别人发觉。hazardvt. 使遭危险Rock climbers sometimes hazard their lives. 攀岩者有时冒着生命的危险。[同]risk[难点]headlongadv. 头向前地I dived headlong into the sea. 我头朝下跳入海中。adv. 轻率地,鲁莽地He dashed headlong in front of the car. 他鲁莽地冲到汽车的前面。[同]recklesslyadj. 头朝前的;轻率的a headlong decision 轻率的决定[同]rashhearthn. 壁炉的炉床;炉边heartyadj. 诚恳的,衷心的,亲切的;强健的,健康的;丰饶的,丰盛的heatern. 加热器,热水器heavev. 发出(叹息等)He heaved a great sigh. 他大大叹了一口气[同]breathev. 扔,抛v. 举起(重物)He heaved the desk onto the truck. 他把桌子扛到卡车上。v. 起伏His bosom is heaving. 他的胸膛起伏着。Heavenn. 上帝,神It was the will of Heaven. 这是天意。Good Heavens ! 天哪!heightenv. 提高heighten an effect 提高效果[同]increasev. 增大,加强[同]intensifyhemispheren. 半球[难点]the Northern / Southern hemisphere 北(南)半球the Eastern / Western hemisphere 东(西)半球henceforthadv. 从今以后[同]from now onheraldn. 通报者,使者;先驱,预兆herbn. 草本植物,药草hiden. 兽皮,皮革;人皮hikevi. 远足,徒步旅行We hiked in the country. 我们在乡间徒步旅行。hindrancen. 妨碍,障碍You are more of a hindrance than a help. 你与其说是帮手,不如说是障碍。[同]impedancehingen. 铰链,合页The door swings on hinges. 门靠铰链开关。n. 主旨,关键hipn. 臀部He stood there with his hands on his hips. 他两手叉腰站在那里。hissn. 嘶嘶声,嘘声applause and hisses 喝彩声与嘘声v. 发出嘶嘶声The snake raised its head and hissed. 那蛇抬起了头并发出嘶嘶声。v. 发嘘声表示反对hiss an actor off the stage 将一演员嘘下台historiann. 历史学家historicadj. 历史上著名的,有历史意义的a historic event 历史上著名的事件hithertoadv. 迄今为止He has hitherto kept it secret. 他到现在还对那件事保守秘密。[同]so farhoarseadj. (声音)沙哑的He shouted himself hoarse. 他的嗓子都喊哑了。[同]harshhoev. 锄,锄地hoe up weeds 锄草hoistn. 升起,扯起,绞起;吊起,起重机,升高装置vt. 升起,举起hoist a flag 升旗[同]raise , elevatehollowvt. 挖空,掏空river banks hollowed out by rushing water 被急流冲刷而凹进去的河岸homelyadj. 家常的,朴素的a homely meal 家常便饭adj. 如在家里的,不拘束的a homely atmosphere 如家中般的气氛adj. (相貌)不漂亮的,不吸引人的homogeneousadj. 同类的,相似的;均匀的,同质的a homogeneous ray 单色射线hopv. (人)单足跳,(鸟,青蛙等)双足跳He had hurt his left foot and had to hop along. 他的左脚受伤,不得不单足跳行。hosen. 长筒袜;(救火等用的)软管,水龙带hospitalityn. 好客,殷勤,款待hostagen. 人质,作抵押的人或物(多指人)take sb. hostage 把某人作为人质hostessn. 女主人;旅馆女老板;(节目)女主持人;女服务员houndn. 猎犬hovervi. (鸟)翱翔,盘旋A kite was hovering overhead. 风筝在头上盘旋。vi. 徘徊He hovered around the house. 他在房子周围徘徊着。howlv. 嗥叫Wolves are howling in the forest. 狼在林中嗥叫。v. (风)怒吼v. (人)高声叫嚣The children howled with laughter. 孩子们纵声大笑。n. 嗥叫,哀号,叫嚣hugn. 搂,紧抱She gave her son a motherly hug. 她以母亲的柔情紧抱她的儿子。[同]embracevt. 紧抱,搂The child was hugging her doll. 那小孩紧抱着她的洋娃娃。hulln. (水果、种子等的)外壳[同]shelln. 船体vt. 去…的壳;(用炮弹等)打穿…的船壳humv. 作嗡嗡声The bees were humming in the garden. 蜜蜂在花园里嗡嗡叫着。[同]buzzv. 哼唱She hummed as she worked. 她在工作时轻轻哼唱。n. 嗡嗡声,哼哼声The wind carried the hum of distant traffic. 风传来了远处过往车辆的嗡嗡声。humanitariann. 人道主义者;博爱主义者,慈善家adj. 人道主义的;博爱的,慈善的humanityn. 人类(总称)[同]mankindn. 人性,人情;(复数)人文学科humidityn. 潮湿,湿气,(空气的)湿度hurlvt. 猛投,猛掷[同]throw[难点]hurl oneself upon … 向…猛扑过去They hurled themselves at / upon the enemy and attacked them violently.他们扑向敌人并猛烈地攻击。hurl sth. at … 将某物猛掷向…hurrahint. 好哇,万岁Hurrah for the Queen ! 女王万岁!hurricanen. 飓风,十二级大风hushv. (使)肃静,(使)安静She hushed the baby to sleep. 她使婴儿安静入睡。n. 肃静,静默There was a sudden hush. 突然肃静下来。[同]silenceint. 嘘!别做声!hydraulicadj. 水力的,液力的a hydraulic lift 水力升降机adj. 水压的,液压的;水力学的hydrocarbonn. 碳氢化合物hymnn. 赞美诗,圣歌They are singing a hymn. 他们正在唱圣歌。hypothesisn. 假设icev. 冰冻,使成冰His refusal iced our enthusiasm. 他的拒绝打消了我们的热情。v. 用冰覆盖The river was iced over. 河给冰封起来了。icyadj. 冰冷的;结冰的idealismn. 唯心主义;理想主义ideallyadv. 理想地,完美地identificationn. 认出,识别[同]recognitionn. 鉴别,验明;身份证明idiotn. 白痴,傻子idlenessn. 懒惰,闲散live in idleness 游手好闲n. 无益,无效ignitev. 点燃,点火The liquid ignited when somebody dropped a match in it.有人向这种液体扔了一根火柴时,它燃烧了起来。ignorancen. 无知,愚昧[同]illiteracyn. 不知道[难点]be in ignorance of 不知道illiterateadj. 文盲的,未受教育的[同]ignorantn. 文盲[反]literateilluminatev. 照亮,照明The room was illuminated by candles. 房间被蜡烛照亮了。v. 启发,阐明illuminate a statement with many examples 用许多实例阐明一个论点illusionn. 幻想,幻觉;错觉[难点]under the illusion about 对…抱有幻想have no illusion about 对…不存在幻想imitationn. 模仿,仿效;仿制品,赝品immersevt. 浸泡,沉浸immerse sth. in the water 把某物浸在水中[同]dip[难点]immerse oneself in 专心从事于be immersed in 沉溺于,专心于immigratev. 移居入境,(从国外)移来immigrate into a country 移民到某一国家immortaladj. 不朽的,永远存在的;永生的,不死的impartvt. 传授,给予impart knowledge to sb. 把知识传授给某人vt. 通知,告诉I have nothing of interest to impart to you. 我没有什么有趣的事情可告诉你。[难点]impart sth. to sb. 给予某人某物impartialadj. 公正的,无偏见的[同]justimplementn. (复数)工具,器具vt. 贯彻,实现implement the Party’s decisions 贯彻执行党的决议[同]fulfilimplorevt. 恳求,乞求He implored the judge for mercy. 他乞求法官的怜悯。[同]plead[难点]implore sb. for sth. 为某事恳求某人implore sb. to do sth. 恳求某人做某事impressiveadj. 给人深刻印象的,感人的improperadj. 不合适的;不正确的;不体面的impulsen. 推动,冲力;冲动,刺激a man of impulse 易冲动的人impurityn. 不纯,不洁;杂质,混杂物inaccessibleadj. 达不到的,难得到的inaccurateadj. 不准确的,不精密的inadequateadj. 不充足的[同]insufficientadj. 不适当的inasmuchadv. 因为,由于inauguratevt. 开始The invention of the jet engine inaugurated a new era in travel.喷气发动机的发明开创了旅行的新纪元。Vt. 为…举行就职典礼Inaugurate a president 举行总统就职典礼incapableadj. 无能力的,不会的incensen. 香,焚香时的烟;香气incidencen. 发生,影响incidentallyadv. 偶然地,附带地[同]accidentallyinclinationn. 倾向,爱好[同]tendencyn. 倾斜,弯曲[难点]follow one’s own inclinations 随心所欲have an inclination for sth. 爱好某物show an inclination to do ( to doing ) sth. 想做…inclusiveadj. 包含的,包括的incompatibleadj. 不相容的,不能共存的Water is incompatible with fire. 水火不相容。[难点]be incompatible with 与…不相容incompleteadj. 不完全的,不完善的incorporatev. 结合,合并[同]combinev. 吸收They incorporated his new ideas in the new plan. 他们把他的新主意吸收到新计划中去。v. (使)组成公司,(使)结成社团[难点]incorporate with 与…合并incorporate … in / into 把…吸入incredibleadj. 难以置信的,不可思议的[同]unbelievableindefiniteadj. 不明确的,含糊的[同]vagueadj. 无限期的indicativeadj. 表示的,指示的;(语法)陈述的,直陈的the indicative mood 陈述语气[难点]be indicative of 表示His presence is indicative of his wish to help. 他的到来表示他想帮忙。indignationn. 愤怒,义愤[同]rageindooradj. 室内的,屋里的inducevt. 劝诱,劝服We couldn’t induce the old lady to travel by air.我们无法劝服那位老太太乘飞机旅行。vt. 导致,引起;归纳(逻辑)[难点]induce sb. to do sth. 劝诱某人做某事inductionn. 就职,入会;感应(现象);(逻辑)(数学)归纳法,归纳推理indulgev. 纵容,放任It is sometimes necessary to indulge a sick child. 迁就一个生病的小孩有时是必要的.v. 沉溺于,纵情于[难点]indulge in 沉迷于,尽情享受industriousadj. 勤劳的,勤奋的,勤勉的inertian. 惯性,惯量(物理)inevitablyadv. 不可避免地,必然的infectiousadj. 传染性的;有感染力的an infectious laugh 有感染力的笑声inferencen. 推论,推断;结论[同]conclusioninferioradj. 低劣的,下级的[反]superiorn. 下级,晚辈[难点]be inferior to 劣于…,低于…infinitelyadv. 无限地,无边地infinityn. 无限大,无穷the infinity of the universe 宇宙的无限n. 大量inflationn. 通货膨胀ingeniousadj. 机灵的;有独创性的;精制的ingenuityn. 机灵,足智多谋ingredientn. 成分,组成部分the ingredients of a cake 蛋糕的各种成分[同]componentinherentadj. 内在的,固有的The desire for freedom is inherent in us all. 渴望自由是我们大家与生俱有的愿望.initiallyadv. 最初,开始initiatevt. 开始,创始,着手initiate a plan 推动一计划vt. 传授,使入门;正式介绍,引进adj. 被传授知识的;被介绍入会的n. 被传授了初步知识的人,新入会的人initiativeadj. 首创的,起始的n. 发端,创始He took the initiative in organizing a party. 他发起筹办了一次晚会.n. 首创精神,进取心lack initiative 缺乏首创精神injectvt. 注射,注入[难点]inject sb.’s arm with 给某人的臂注入…inlandadj. 内地的,内陆的,国内的inland trade 国内贸易adv. 在内地,到内地inletn. 进口,入口;水湾vt. 引进;嵌入,插入innovationn. 革新,创新,改革innumerableadj. 无数的,数不清的[同]countlessinorganicadj. 无生物的,无机的inputvt. 输入insightn. 洞察力;觉察,领悟,了解insignificantadj. 无关紧要的,无意义的insistentadj. 坚持的;迫切的;显眼的,显著的inspectorn. 检查员,视察员inspirationn. 灵感,启发;给予鼓励的人或事instabilityn. 不稳定,反复无常installmentn. 分期付款instantaneousadj. 瞬间的,即刻的[同]instantinstructorn. 指导者,教员instrumentaladj. 仪器的,乐器的;有帮助的,起作用的insulatevt. 使隔离children carefully insulated from harmful experiences与有害经历小心个离开的孩子们vt. 使绝缘insulatorn. 绝缘体intaken. 吸入(量),纳入(量)the yearly intake of students 每年的招生数量n. (管道)入口integraladj. 完整的;积分的,整数的integratev. 使成为整体,使合并They’ve lived here for 10 years , but have never really integrated with the local people.他们已在这里居住十年,但从未真正地与当地人融为一体.integrityn. 正直,诚实;完整,完全intellectn. 理智,智力,才智intentadj. 专心致志的,一心一意的;热切的[同]eager[难点]be intent on ( doing ) sth. 专心致志于…interactvi. 相互作用,相互影响All things are interact on each other. 一切事物相互影响。interconnectvt.(使)相互联系The two things are closely interconnected. 这两个事物是相互紧密地联系在一起的。intercoursen. 交际,往来interfacen. 分界面,相交处intermediaten. 中间体,媒介物;调解人intervenevi. 干涉,干预They were starting to fight when their father intervened. 他们正要打架,他们的父亲阻止了他们。[同]interferevi. 插入,介入[难点]intervene in 调停intonationn. 语调,声调invalidadj. 有病的,伤残的n. 病弱者invariablyadv. 不变地,永恒地,总是[同]unchangeablyinverselyadv. 相反地[同]reverselyinvoicen. 发票,装货清单ionn. 离子irregularityn. 不规则,无规律irrespectiveadj. 不顾的[同]regardless[难点]irrespective of 不考虑…irrigationn. 灌溉,水利irritatevt. 激怒,使恼火Islamn. 伊斯兰教,回教ivoryn. 象牙,乳白色jackn. 千斤顶,起重机;插座v. 用千斤顶抬起jack up a car 用千斤顶将汽车抬起jailn. 监狱vt. 监禁jealousyn. 妒忌,嫉妒[同]envyjeann. 斜纹布;(复数)牛仔裤,工装裤jellyn. 冻,果子冻,冻状物;畏惧,犹豫不决jerkv. 猛拉She jerked the fish out of the water. 她猛地把鱼从水中拉出。v. 抽搐n. 急拉,急推;(医)抽搐Jesusn. 耶稣jewelleryn. 珠宝,珠宝饰物jinglev.(使)叮当响He jingled the money in his pocket. 他把口袋里的钱弄得叮当作响。n. 叮当声jogv. 缓慢行进,使颠簸行进The old bus jogged us up and down on the rough road.那辆旧公共汽车载着我们在崎岖的道路上颠簸着行驶。v. 轻推,摇动jugn. (有柄的)水壶junctionn. 连接,会合;汇合处,交叉点at the junction of two rivers 在两条河流的交汇点Jupitern. 木星;丘比特kerneln.(果实的)核仁;(问题等的)要点the kernel of the difficulty 困难的症结所在kidnapvt. 诱拐,绑架[同]abductkidneyn. 肾,腰子;个性,脾气kilowattn. 千瓦(K.W)kindlev. 点燃,着火The wood was too wet to kindle easily. 木头太湿,不容易燃着。[同]ignitev. 激起(人的情感,兴趣等)[同]rousekineticadj. 运动的;动力(学)的kitn. 用具包,成套工具knightn. 骑士,武士;爵士lacev. 用带子束紧lace up one’s shoes 束好鞋带n. 系带,鞋带;花边,饰带landscapen. 风景,景色latentadj. 潜在的[同]potentiallathen. 车床vt. 用车床加工latituden. 纬度;(言论、行动等的)自由latticen. 格子lattice window 格子窗leafletn. 传单,活页leakagen. 漏,泄漏leasen. 租约,租契legislationn. 法规,立法lengthn. 长度;程度,范围[难点]at length 终于,长时间的,详细地at full length 全身平伸地keep sb. at arm’s length 避免与某人亲近lengthenv. 使延长,变长The days lenghten in March. 三月里白天变长了。[同]extend , prolongleopardn. 豹lessenv. 减轻,减少lessen tensions 缓和紧张局势[同]diminishv. 变少[反]increaseliabilityn. 倾向,易于liability to disease 容易生病n. 责任,义务liability to pay taxes 纳税的义务n.(复数)债务lightern. 打火机;驳船likelihoodn. 可能性[同]probabilityn. 可能发成的事物lilyn. 百合花;睡莲limestonen. 石灰石limpv. 跛行The wounded soldier limped off the battlefield. 那个伤兵一瘸一拐地离开了战场。[同]cripplen. 跛行He walks with a limp. 他走路一瘸一拐。adj. 柔软的,软弱的linevt. 加衬里于line a coat with silk 用绸做外衣的衬里linearadj. 线的,直线的;线形的(数学)linern. 班机lingerv. 逗留,徘徊He lingered outside the school after everyone else had gone home.别人都回家后,他仍在学校外面徘徊。v. 磨蹭,拖延liningn. 村里,衬料lipstickn. 唇膏,口红literaladj. 文字(上)的;字面的,逐字的;确确实实的the literal truth 不折不扣的真实literallyadv. 字面地,逐字地littern. 乱扔的杂物;垃圾v. 乱丢,乱扔Don’t litter the room with scraps of paper. 不要在房间里到处乱丢纸屑。[同]scatterlobbyn. 门廊,门厅localityn. 地点,发生地locationn. 定位,探测;位置,地方locomotiveadj. 运动的,移动的n. 机车,火车头locustn. 蝗虫;洋槐,刺槐lodgingn. 寄宿,住宿,住所loftyadj. 高耸的;高尚的,崇高的lofty aims 崇高的目标logn. 航海日志,飞行日志longingn. 渴望,热望a longing for home 思家[同]desireadj. 显示渴望的longituden. 经度[反]latitudelooselyadv. 松散地,宽松地;不严格地loungen. 休息室,起居室lubricatev. 使润滑,给…上油lubricate the engine 给引擎上油luminousadj. 发光的,明亮的;聪明的lunaradj. 月亮的,按月球运转的a lunar year (阴历)一年luncheonn. (正式用语)午餐,午宴luxuriousadj. 奢侈的;豪华的,昂贵的magiciann. 魔术师magistraten. 地方法官,行政长官magnetismn. 磁力,吸引力;催眠术magnifyv. 放大,扩大[同]micrifyv. 扩大[难点]magnify sth. ( by ) … times 把某物放大…倍magnituden. 大小,数量;巨大;重要性maidenn. 少女,未婚少女mainn.(自来水、煤气)总管道,(电力,铁路)干线majestyn. 威严;陛下makeupn. 组成,构造[同]compositionn. 性格,体格;化妆品malicen. 恶意,怨恨[同]despite , spitemammaln. 哺乳动物manifestv. 表现,表明The disease manifests itself in yellowness of the skin and eyes.这种病的明显症状是皮肤和眼睛发黄。adj. 明显的[同]apparentmanipulatevt. 熟练地操作,控制manipulate the controls of the machine 熟练地操纵机器的控制装置[同]controlvt. 操纵,控制mansionn. 大厦,大楼;官邸manuscriptn. 手稿,原稿maplen. 枫树marginaladj. 记在页边的;边缘的marketvt. 销售The firm markets many types of goods. 这家公司销售许多类型的商品。Marsn. 火星;战争marshn. 沼泽地marshaln. 元帅martyrn. 烈士,殉难者He died a martyr in the cause of science. 他为科学而献身。marveln. 奇迹,令人惊奇的事物v. 惊奇,对…感到惊异[难点]marvel at 对…感到惊奇masculineadj. 男性的,男子气的;阳性的massacren. 大屠杀vt. 大屠杀massiveadj. 巨大的,大规模的;大而重的mastn. 桅杆;杆,天线杆vt. 在…上装桅杆;扯帆mechanismn. 机械装置;机构,结构;机制meditatev. 反省,沉思;认真考虑[难点]meditate upon 沉思melancholyn. 忧郁;悲哀adj. 忧郁的,令人伤感的melodyn. 歌曲;旋律,曲调[同]thememembershipn. 成员资格,会员资格menacev. 威胁,恐吓The people are being menaced by war. 人民正受到战争的威胁。[同]threatenn. 威胁,恐吓[难点]menace sb. with sth. 用…威胁某人merchandisen.(总称)商品,货物mercifuladj. 仁慈的,宽大的[同]charitablemeritv. 值得He merited all the praise they gave him. 他理应受到他们对他的一切表扬。[同]deservemeshn. 网眼,筛孔v. 用网捉住Lots of fishes are meshed today. 今天捕获很多鱼。messv. 弄乱,弄脏,搞糟The late arrival of the rain messed up all our plans. 火车误点把我们的计划全打乱了。[难点]mess sth. up 弄乱,弄糟mess sth. / sb. about 乱做,粗鲁对待某人metallicadj. 金属(性)的n.(复数)金属粒子metallurgyn. 冶金学,冶金术metropolitanadj. 首都的,大城市的n. 大城市的居民;大主教microprocessorn. 微处理机microscopicadj. 显微镜的;微小的microwaven. 微波(无线电)mightyadj. 强大的,巨大的[同]powerfulmigratev. 迁移,移居Some tribes migrate with their cattle in search of fresh grass.有些部落为寻找鲜草而赶着牛群迁徙。[同]movev.(候鸟等的)定期移栖milkyadj. 牛奶的,像牛奶的;乳白色的millionairen. 百万富翁minglev. 使混合The king mingled with the people in the streets. 国王和街上的人群混在一起了。[同]mix[难点]mingle in / with 混入…mingle with 与…混合miniaturen. 缩影;袖珍画adj. 缩小的,微型的minimizevt. 使减到最小He’d made a bad mistake,but tried to minimize its seriousness.他犯了一个大错误,但他试图把其严重性说成很小。vt. 极度轻视(或贬低)mintn. 薄荷(糖);造币厂;制造所,来源mischiefn. 捣蛋,恶作剧;损害misern. 吝啬鬼,守财奴miseryn. 悲惨,不幸[同]wretchednessmisfortunen. 不幸;灾祸,不幸事故missionaryn. 传教士mistv. 下薄雾The window misted over. 玻璃窗蒙上了一层薄雾。mistressn. 女主人,主妇;情妇mittenn. 连指手套mixern. 搅拌机;调酒师mobv. 聚众包围The pickpocket was mobbed by angry women. 扒手被愤怒的妇女们包围了起来。n. 乌合之众,暴徒mobilizev. 动员Because our country is in great danger,we must mobilize. 我国正处于巨大的危险之中,我们必须动员起来。mockn. 嘲笑,愚弄;嘲弄的对象v. 嘲弄The pupil did his best, and the teacher was wrong to moch him.学生已尽了最大努力,老师嘲笑他是不对的。adj.假的, 模拟的, 虚幻的 a mock trial 模拟裁决moderatelyadv. 适度地[反]extremelymodestyn. 谦逊,虚心[同]humilitymodificationn. 修改,修饰[同]alterationn. 缓和,减轻[同]reductionmodulatev. 调整,调节[同]regulate , adjustmodulen. 模块,模数;(宇宙飞船的)舱molecularadj. 分子的,与分子有关的momentaryadj. 瞬息间的,顷刻的[同]transientmonarchn. 君主,最高统治者monkn. 和尚,僧侣monopolyn. 垄断,独占In many countries tobacco is a government monopoly. 在许多国家中,烟草是政府的专卖事业。n. 专利权monstern. 怪物,妖怪;恶人monstrousadj. 可怕的,极恶的monstrous crimes 恐怖的罪行adj. 巨大的moorv.(使)停泊,系泊moor a boat to land 把船拴在岸上[同]anchorv.(使)固定[难点]moor … to 把…拴在…上mopn. 拖把,洗碗刷moralityn. 道德,美德[同]virtuemortgagen. 抵押vt. 抵押,把…作抵押品mortgage a house to sb. for $20000 将房屋抵押给某人,借款两万美元Moslemadj. 穆斯林的,伊斯兰教徒的n. (Moslems / Moslemin)穆斯林的,伊斯兰教徒的mosquen. 清真寺mossn. 苔藓,地衣moteln. 汽车旅店motiveadj.(定语)发动的motive power 动力motorwayn. 汽车道,快车道mountv. 装配,固定She mounted the photogragh on stiff paper. 她把照片裱贴在硬纸上。[同]fix onn. 支架,底座mountainousadj. 多山的;如山一般的,巨大的multiplicationn. 乘法;增多multituden. 大批,大量,众多;大量like the stars in multitude 像无数的繁星[难点]a multitude of 众多的the multitude 群众,大众municipaladj. 市政的,市的murmurn. 低沉连续的声音;低语,怨言v. 低声说,低声抱怨a child murmuring in his sleep 孩子在睡梦中喃喃低语[难点]murmur at / against 对…低声抱怨muscularadj. 肌肉的,强有力的musevi. 沉思,冥想She sat musing for hours. 她一连几小时坐在那里沉思默想。[同]ponder[难点]muse over / on / upon 沉思…mustardn. 芥末muten. 哑巴;弱音器(音乐);闭止音(语言学)adj. 不作声的[同]dumbmysteryn. 神秘小说,侦探小说napkinn. 餐巾(纸)narrationn. 讲述,叙述[同]descriptionn. 故事negligibleadj. 微不足道的,可以忽略的negotiatev. 谈判,协商The trade union is negotiating with the employers to get a better condition.工会正在和雇主谈判,以改善工作条件。[难点]negotiate with sb. about / over sth. 与某人谈判某事negotiate sb. into doing 通过谈判使某人做….neighbouringadj. 邻近的,附近的[同]adjacentadj. 接壤的nestv. 筑巢The swallows are nesting in the woodshed. 燕子正在柴房里筑巢。netv. 用网捕;用网覆盖;布网于neutronn. 中子(物理)niceadj. 细微的,微妙的a nice difference between two meanings 两种意义间的微妙差别[同]delicatenickeln. 镍;镍币nicknamen. 绰号,诨号nightmaren. 噩梦,梦魇;经常的恐惧,可怕的事物nominatevt. 提名I wish to nominate Jane for president of the club. 我想提名简为俱乐部主席。vt. 任命[难点]nominate sb. for 提名某人当…nominate sb. to 任命某人做…normn. 标准,准则[同]standardnormalizationn. 正常化,标准化northwardadj. 向北的;adv. 向北方notableadj. 值得注意的[同]remarkableadj. 著名的notedadj. 著名的a noted performer 著名的表演家[难点]be noted for 以…而著名be noted as 以作为…而著称notifyvt. 通知I will notify my lawyer to write out the agreement. 我将通知我的律师把这份协议写出来。[同]informvt. 报告,宣告[难点]notify sb. to do 通知某人做…notify sb. that…. 通知某人…notify sb. of sth. 通知某人某事notionn. 想法,概念I haven’t the faintest notion what you’re talking about.我对你谈论的东西毫无概念。[同]conceptnotoriousadj. 臭名昭著的,声名狼藉的[同]ill-famed[难点]be notorious for 以…而臭名远扬be notorious as 以…身份而臭名远扬notwithstandingprep. 尽管,虽然Notwithstanding any other agreements,we will make a new contract with the firm.尽管有其他协议,我们仍将与这家公司签订一份新合同。[同]despiteadv. 尽管,还是noughtn. 零,无nourishvt. 提供养分nourishing food 营养丰富的食物[同]nurturevt. 养育nourishmentn. 食物,营养品noveltyn. 新颖,新奇;新奇的事物numberv. 共计,达到…总数The people at the meeting numbered several thousands. 出席会议的总共有几千人。numericaladj. 数字的,用数字表示的nunn. 修女,尼姑oarn. 桨,橹;划手,桨手v. 划,划动,划行oathn. 誓言,誓约take / make an oath 发誓[同]swearobediencen. 服从,顺从Soldiers act in obedience to the orders of their officers. 军人按照军官的指示行动。[难点]in obedience to 遵照,服从….obedientadj. 服从的,顺从的[同]submissive[难点]be obedient to 对…服从obligationn. 义务,责任[同]dutyobscureadj. 昏暗的[同]dimadj. 模糊的,晦涩的Very few people understood his lecture , the subject of which was very obscure.很少有人理解他的演讲,它的主题非常晦涩。[同]vagueobservationn. 言论,意见obstinateadj. 固执的,顽强的[同]stubbornoffencen. 犯罪,犯错;冒犯,触怒offensiveadj. 冒犯的,攻击的n. 进攻,攻势offerv. 呈现,出现Take the first opportunity that offers. 抓住第一个出现的机会。offsetn. 分支,支脉;抵销,补偿v. 抵销,补偿The cost of getting there was offset by the fact that it’s a very cheap place to live.由于当地的生活费用低廉,可以补偿去那里的旅费。offspringn. 子孙,后代ohmn. 欧姆(电阻单位)oliven. 橄榄树onsetn. 攻击,突击;开始,突然发作the offset of a fever 突然发烧onwardadj. 向前的the onward march of events 事态的发展adv. 向前地opaqueadj. 不透明的,难理解的opiumn. 鸦片optimismn. 乐观,乐观主义optimumn. 最佳条件adj. 最佳的,最适宜的optionn. 选择;选择的事物orchardn. 果园a pear orchard 梨园ordinarilyadv. 通常地,普通地orientn. 东方,亚洲,远东orientationn. 定位,定向[同]positionn. 朝向东方originatev. 发源,起源Her book originated in/from a short story. 她的那本书取材于一篇短篇小说。[同]derivev. 首创,创始The person who originated this type of research deserves our praise.首创这一研究工作的人值得我们赞扬。v. 引起,产生[难点]originate in/from sth. 产生于,发源于originate from/with sb. 由某人发起ornamentn. 装饰(品);装饰,装饰物vt. 装饰,美化ornament a dress with lace 用花边装饰衣服ornamentaladj. 装饰的,作装饰用的n. 装饰品outbreakn.(战争等)突然爆发,(瘟疫等)突然蔓延[同]outburstoutermostadj. 最外面的,远离中心的[反]innermostoutlawn. 罪犯,歹徒[同]criminalovaladj. 卵形的,椭圆形的n. 卵形,椭圆形overestimatevt. 过高估计,过高评价I think you’re overestimating his abilities. 我认为你对他的能力评价过高。overflowv.(使)漫溢The river overflowed its banks. 河水淹没了两岸。[同]spilloverhangvt. 悬于…之上,突出于…之上The cliffs overhang the stream. 悬崖突出于溪流之上。overhearvt. 偶然听到,偷听I overheard them taliking. 我偶然听到了他们的谈话。overlapn. 重叠v. 与…重叠History and politics overlap and should be studied together.历史和政治相互交叠,应该一起研究。overloadv. 使超载,使负荷过重[同]overburdenoverthrowvt. 推翻,打倒overthrow the government 推翻政府n. 推翻,颠覆overwhelmvt. 压倒,制服;淹没;使不知所措be overwhelmed with excitement 极为兴奋overwhelming adj. 压倒的,势不可挡的an overwhelming majority 压倒的多数oxidev. 氧化物oxidizev. 氧化,使生锈oystern. 牡蛎;沉默寡言的人paln. 好朋友,好伙伴pamphletn. 小册子panicn. 恐怖,惊慌be seized with (a) panic 惊慌失措[反]calmpantv. 气喘吁吁地说He panted out his message. 他气喘吁吁地讲出口信。panthern. 豹,黑豹pantryn. 食品柜,餐具室pantsn. 裤子parachuten. 降落伞paragraphn. (报刊的)短评,短讯paralysevt. 使麻痹,使瘫痪His left arm is paralysed. 他的左臂麻痹了。parametern. 参数(数学);参量(物理)participantn. 参与者treaty participants 条约参加国adj. 有份的,参与的(of)partitionn. 分开;隔板vt. 把…分成部分partition a house into rooms 把房屋隔成若干房间[同]separatepasturen. 牧场;放牧patentadj. 专利的,特许的n. 专利权,专利品get a patent for 得到…的专利权vt. 给予…专利权;获得…专利权patheticadj. 哀婉动人的;可怜的[同]pitifulpatriotn. 爱国者,爱国主义者patrioticadj. 爱国的,由爱国热忱的patroln. 巡逻;巡逻队v. 巡逻,巡查patronn. 庇护人;赞助人patternv. 仿制,仿造a coat patterned on a Chinese model 一件仿照中国式样的上衣[同]imitatev. 模仿[难点]pattern sth. on 根据…仿制peacockn. 孔雀;爱炫耀的人peakn.(物体的)尖端,突出部分peckv. 啄,啄起The bird was pecking the bark. 鸟啄着树皮。peculiarityn. 独特性,特色;特殊的东西;怪癖pedaln. 踏脚,踏板;骑自行车The boy pedalled away on his tricycle. 那男孩骑着三轮车走了。pedestriann. 步行者,行人pedlarn. 小贩,商贩peeln. 果皮,蔬菜皮peervi. 凝视,盯着看(at,into)peer into the distance 凝视着远方penaltyn. 刑罚,惩罚[同]punishmentpendulumn.(钟等的)摆a simple pendulum 单摆n. 摇摆不定的事态(或局面)penetrationn. 穿透,渗入,贯穿;敏锐,洞察力perceptionn. 感觉,知觉a man of keen perception 感觉敏锐的人n. 概念,理解力perchn.(禽、鸟的)栖木;(高处的)休息地v. 栖息,停歇The birds perched on the telephone wires. 鸟栖息在电话线上。perfectionn. 尽善尽美,完整无缺;(pl.)才艺,造诣,优点performern. 执行者;表演者,演奏者periln. 严重危险be in peril of one’s life 有生命危险[同]hazardn. 危险的事物perimetern. 周长,周边periodicadj. 周期的,定期的periodicaln. 杂志,期刊[同]journalperipheraladj. 边缘的a peripheral war 边缘战争adj. 表面的perishv. 死亡,夭折Hundred of people perished in the earthquake. 数以百计的人死于那次地震。v. 枯萎,腐朽Flowers perish in frost. 花遇霜枯萎。perpendicularadj. 垂直的,正交的(to)[同]vertical , uprightadj. 险陡的n. 垂直;垂直线perpetualadj. 永远的,永久的[同]everlastingadj. 四季开花的perplexvt. 迷惑,困惑be perplexed for an answer 不知怎么回答才好[同]puzzlevt. 使复杂化[同]complicatepersecutevt. 迫害,残害be persecuted by the reactionary government 受到反动政府的迫害vt. 烦扰,困扰perseverevi. 坚持,不屈不挠(in,at,with)persevere with an arduous task 坚持进行艰巨的工作persistencen. 持续,存留;坚持personalityn. 人格;个性;人物persuasionn. 劝服,说服;主张,见解pertinentadj. 恰当的,中肯的;有关的,相干的[同]relevant[难点]be pertinent to 与…有关pestn. 害虫,有害动物petitionn. 情愿,祈求[同]applicationn. 请愿书v. 情愿,祈求[难点]petition sb. for sth. 为某人向某人情愿petition sb. to do sth. 祈求某人做某事petition for sth. 请求得到某物pettyadj. 细小的,微小的petty commodities 小商品adj. 次要的[同]unimportantphotoelectricadj. 光电的(物理)photographyn. 摄影术physicallyadv. 按自然规律地;物理上地;身体上地picklen.(pl.)腌菜,泡菜onion pickles 腌洋葱v. 腌制,腌渍piern. 桥墩;码头pilgrimn.(在国外)旅行者;香客,朝圣者pineapplen. 凤梨,菠萝piousadj. 虔诚的,敬神的[同]devoutpipen. 管乐器;(复数)苏格兰风笛piraten. 海盗,掠夺者;海盗船pistonn. 活塞plaguen. 瘟疫,鼠疫;天灾,灾害plainadj. 坦白的,直率的to be plain with you 坦白对你讲[同]frankplateaun. 高原;平稳时期platformn. 政纲,党纲[同]principlesplean. 恳求,请求pleadv. 为…辩护,辩解plead a client’s case 为某一当事人的案子辩护v. 恳求[难点]plead with sb. for sth. 向某人恳求某事plead for sb. 为某人辩护plead against sb. 反驳某人plead sth. 为…辩护pledgen. 誓言,保证vt. 使发誓,保证I have pledged to do my best. 我已保证尽力而为。[难点]be pledged to sth. 立誓忠于…pledge oneself to doing sth. 保证做某事pledge to do 保证做…pluckv. 鼓起(勇气),振作pluck up one’s courage 鼓起勇气[难点]pluck up 鼓起,振作plumpadj. 丰满的,饱满的plundern. 掠夺,抢劫v. 掠夺The enemy plundered the village. 敌人抢劫了村庄。[同]robpneumaticadj. 空气的,气体的[同]airyadj. 气动的,风动的pokev. 刺,戳,捅poke at that policy 攻击那项政策v. 伸(头等)polaradj. 南极的,北极的polarityn. 极性(物理);(思想、感情等的)归向,倾向polln. 投票,投票数;民意测验v. 投票[同]votev. 对…进行民意测验polymern. 聚合物,聚合体(化学)ponderv. 沉思,考虑ponder a question 考虑问题[同]consider[难点]ponder on/over 思考Popen.(罗马天主教的)教皇popularityn. 流行,普及;通俗性;声望porcelainn. 瓷,瓷器adj. 瓷的,瓷制的poren. 毛孔,气孔He was sweating at every pore. 他大汗淋漓。portableadj. 轻便的,手提式的a portable railway 轻便小铁道adj. 可移动的posev.(使)摆好姿势The photographer posed him carefully. 摄影师细心地使他摆好姿势。positionn. 形势,情况[同]conditionn. 主张,看法one’s position on this problem 某人对这问题的看法[同]opinion , attitudepositiveadj. 十足的,完全的positivelyadv. 确定地,断然地,绝对地postaladj. 邮政的,邮局的postulatev. 要求the claims postulated 要求事项v. 假定,假设[同]assumen. 假定,假设poultryn.(总称)家禽practicableadj. 能实行的,行得通的[同]feasibleadj. 适用的prairien. 大草原preachv.(宗教)布道,宣讲;鼓吹,宣扬She’s always preeching the value of fresh air. 她一直在宣扬新鲜空气的好处。[难点]preach down 贬损preach up 吹捧precedev. 领先于…,优先The motorcade was preceded by motorcycles. 摩托车为车队作先导。predecessorn. 前辈,前任revolutionary predecessors 革命前辈n.(被取代的)原有事物predictionn. 预言,预告,预示predominantadj. 占优势的,支配的(over);主要的,突出的pregnantadj. 怀孕的,孕育着的be pregnant with new ideas 孕育着新思想adj. 充满的;意义深长的prescriptionn. 处方,药方presentationn. 介绍,引见;赠送;提出the presentation of a plan 计划的提出n. 呈现,演示preservationn. 保存,保管[同]conservationpresetvt. 预先装置,预先调整presidevi. 主持(over),作会议的主席(at)preside at/over a meeting 主持会议prestigen. 威望,声望[同]eminencepresumablyadj. 推测起来,大概He knows,presumably,how to deal with such things. 他总该知道怎么处理这类事情吧。presumev. 假定,假设Let’s presume that he has told the truth. 我们姑且认为他说的是真话。[同]postulateprevalentadj. 流行的,盛行的[同]prevailingpreventionn. 预防,阻止preyn. 猎物,牺牲品vi. 捕食,捕猎Cats prey on birds and mice. 猫捕食鸟和老鼠。[难点]prey on / upon 猎食,掠夺prickv. 刺(穿),戳(穿)prick holes in paper 在纸上刺孔[同]poken. 刺痛,刺伤priestn. 教士,神父,牧师principallyadv. 主要地,大抵printern. 印刷商;印刷机priorityn. 先,前[同]previousnessn. 优先权[难点]have priority over to …. 优先give priority to 给予…优先权prismn. 棱柱,棱柱体;三棱镜,棱镜第六十天[2004.04.09.] proben. 探针,探测器v. 探查,探索probe into the essence of things 探索事物的本质[同]exploreproceedingn. 程序,进程producern. 生产者,制造者(与consumer相对);演出人,制片人,节目制作人productiveadj. 生产的,肥沃的[难点]productive of 可能产生…的productive of happiness 可能带来幸福的productivityn. 生产率,生产能力proficiencyn. 熟练,精通(in)[难点]proficiency in … 精通…acquire proficiency in English through practice 通过实践熟练地掌握英语proficientadj. 熟练的,精通的(in)[同]skilledprofitableadj. 有益的[同]advantageousadj. 有利可图的profoundadj. 意义深远的,深奥的[同]abstractadj. 深厚的,深切的prohibitionn. 禁止;禁令,禁律projectorn. 放映机,投影器,幻灯机prolongvt. 延长,拉长The treaty has been prolonged for another then years. 条约延长十年。[同]extendpromisingadj. 有希望的,有前途的The weather is promising. 天气可望好转。promotionn. 促进,发扬promotion of friendship 友谊的增进n. 提升promptlyadv. 迅速地,敏捷地propagandan. 宣传,宣传机构propagatev. 繁殖,增殖;传播,宣传The political party started the newspaper to propagate its idea.那个政党创办了一份报纸来宣传其观点。propagationn. 繁殖;传播propelvt. 推进,推动propel history forward 推动历史前进propellern.(轮船,飞机上的)螺旋桨,推进器prophecyn. 预言[同]predictionprophetn. 预言家,先知propositionn. 问题,难题;命题,定理;提议,建议propulsionn. 推进,推进力,推进器prosen. 散文protonn. 质子(物理)prototypen. 原型a production prototype 生产原型n. 典型,范例proverbn. 谚语,格言provokevt. 激发,引起provoke sb’s interest 引起某人的兴趣vt. 对…挑衅,激怒provoke sb. to anger 激怒某人prudentadj. 谨慎的,深谋远虑的[同]cautiouspsychologyn. 心理学;心理puffv. 喘气He was puffing hard when he jumped on to the bus.他跳上公共汽车时喘息不已。v. 吹气,喷(烟);趾高气扬puff at sb’s remarks 对某人的话嗤之以鼻pulleyn. 滑轮,滑车pumpkinn. 南瓜puppyn. 小狗,幼犬purifyv. 使纯净,使净化This salt has been purified for use in medicine. 这盐被提纯用于制药。v. 提纯,精炼pyjaman.(复数)睡衣裤qualificationn. 资格;合格证;限制条件qualitativeadj. 质的,质量的;性质上的quantifyvt. 确定…的数量quantitativeadj. 量的,数量上的quarterlyadj. 季度的,按季度的a quarterly review (评论性的)季刊adv. 季度地,按季地quartzn. 石英quenchv. 扑灭,熄灭quench a fire 灭火[同]extinguishv. 抑制,解(渴)quench one’s desire 遏制渴望questn. 寻找,探索[同]pursuitv. 寻找,探索[难点]in quest of 探索,寻找quest for 寻找,探求questionableadj. 可疑的[同]doubtfuladj. 不可靠的questionairen. 调查表,征求意见表quiverv. 颤动,抖动I quivered with fear at the sound. 我听见那种声音就吓得发抖。[同]shiverradialadj. 半径的;光线的;辐射状的radiantadj. 光芒四射的the radiant sun 灿烂的阳光[同]shiningadj. 喜悦的,容光焕发的a radiant face 一张容光焕发的脸adj. 放射的radiant heat 辐射热radiatorn. 暖气片,散热器;(汽车引擎的)冷却器,水箱This car has a fan-cooled radiator. 这部汽车有一个由风扇散热的冷却器。radicaladj. 激进的a radical democrat 激进的民主党员[同]revolutionaryadj. 根本的,基本的make radical reforms 做彻底的改革[同]fundamentalraisinn. 葡萄干rallyn. 大会,集会hold a mass rally 举行群众大会n. 公路汽车赛;v. 重新集结,重整旗鼓The leader rallied his men. 指挥官重整其部署。v. (使)恢复健康,力量,决心ramblen. 闲逛,漫步[同]wonder , roamn. 聊天,漫笔vi. 闲逛,漫步ranchn. 大牧场,大农场randomn. 随机,无目的或目标hit out at random 无的放矢adj. 随意的,随机的random remarks 随便说的话[难点]at random 随机地,随意地rapn. 叩击(声)v. 敲击,急拍rapidityn. 快,迅速with great rapidity 非常迅速地rapturen.(复数)狂喜,欢天喜地rascaln. 流氓,无赖,恶棍[同]villainrashadj. 性急的,急躁的a rash young man 一个莽撞的年轻人adj. 草率从事的,轻率的a rash statement 不顾后果的话[同]hastyrattlev.(使)急速、连续地发出短促尖锐的声音The wind rattled the windows . 风吹得窗子嘎嘎作响。v. 喋喋不休;匆忙地做reactorn. 核反应堆;反应器realisticadj. 现实(主义)的[同]down-to-earth ,practicalrealizationn.(计划、野心或希望的)实现;理解,知识[同]understandingn. 变现,变卖;(金钱、财产等的)赚取,获得rebukevt. 指责,非难rebuke a subordinate for being impudent 指责一属下的鲁莽[同]reprove[难点]rebuke sb. for sth. 因…指责某人recipen. 食谱,处方,秘诀a recipe for happiness 幸福快乐的秘诀reciprocaladj. 相互的reciprocal help 相互的帮助[同]mutualadj. 相对的,彼此相反的recklessadj. 鲁莽的,不顾后果的a reckless spender 乱花钱者[同]rash[难点]be reckless of 不顾,不管be reckless of danger 不顾危险reckonv. 计算,算出The child can’t reckon yet. 这孩子还不会计算。[同]calculatev. 估计,猜想I reckon to arrive in Beijing at noon. 我估计正午抵达北京。[同]estimatev. 以为,认为She was reckoned the prettiest girl in the village. 她被认为是村子里最漂亮的女孩。[同]consider[难点]reckon sb./sth. as/to be 认为,把…看作reckon on/upon sb./sth. 依赖,寄望于I reckon on your help. 我寄望于你的帮助。reckon sth. in 把…计算在内reckon without sb. 未将某人算在内reclaimvt. 开拓,开垦reclaim waste land 开垦荒地vt. 改正,矫正reclaim a man from error 纠正某人之错误vt. 要求归还reclaim lost territory 要求收回失去的领土vt. 回收利用(废物)reconcilevt. 使和解,使和好He was reconciled with his brother. 他已同兄弟和解。vt. 调解,调和reconcile differences 调解分歧vt. 使一致,使和谐reconcile work with rest 使劳逸结合vt. 使顺从reconcile oneself to a life of hardship and poverty安于艰苦贫穷的生活[难点]reconcile … with … 使…与…和解,使…与…一致reconcile oneself to sth. 安于,顺从于…be reconciled to sth. 安于recreationn. 消遣,娱乐To him,walking is a recreation. 对他来说,散步是一种消遣。[同]entertainmentrectanglen.(数学)矩形,长方形rectifyvt. 纠正,整顿He decided to rectify his mistakes. 他决心改正错误。[同]correctvt. 调整,校正rectify the calendar 调整历法vt. 求(曲线等)的长度(数学)reedn. 芦苇;芦笛,牧笛,牧歌reefn. 礁,暗礁reeln.(电线、棉纱等的)卷筒,卷轴;一卷,一盘four reels of tape 四盘磁带v. 卷,绕(in)refereen. 仲裁人,公断人;(足球、拳击等的)裁判员refineryn. 精炼厂,提炼厂an oil refinery 炼油厂refrainv. 抑制,控制,忍住refrain from laughing 忍住不笑Please refrain from smoking. 请勿吸烟。[同]hold back , control[难点]refrain from doing sth. (自己)忍住不做某事refreshmentn.(精神或体力上的)恢复I feel refreshment of mind and body. 我感到身心愉快。n.(复数)茶点,点心,饮料Please take some refreshments. 请吃点点心。refugeen. 流亡者,难民a refugee camp 难民营regenerativeadj. 新生的,复兴的regenerative influences 复兴势力adj.(医)再生的the regenerative capacity 再生力adj.(机器等)蓄热的,回热的regimen. 政体,政权,政治制度a revolutionary regime 革命政权under the capitalist regime 在资本主义制度下regimentn. 军团;一大群,大量a regiment of ducks 一大群鸭子regularityn. 规则性,规律性do one’s work with regularity 有条不紊的工作n. 整齐,匀称regularity of form 体型匀称reignn. 主权,统治,王朝the reign of law 法治vi. 统治;占优势,盛行Silence reigned everywhere. 到处寂静无声。[难点]reign over 统治relayn. 接力,替班working in/by relays 轮班工作relay race 接力赛n. 中继relay station 中继站,转播站vt. 转播,分程传递relay a message 传送讯息vt. 使接替remaindern. 剩余物;剩下的人;余数repayv. 偿还,付还repay a loan 还贷款v. 报答repay sb. for his kindness 报答某人的恩惠v. 报应,报复repay evil for evil 以恶报恶[难点]repay sth. / repay sb. for sth. 报答某人repealvt. 废除,撤销(法令等);放弃n. 废除,撤销repelvt. 驱开,拒绝repel the temptation 拒绝诱惑vt. 使厌恶,使反感His manner repels me. 他的态度使我反感。replacementn. 代替;归还,复归原位;代替的人,代替物representationn. 表示,象征[同]symboln. 说明,陈述[同]descriptionn. 代表,(总称)一个选区的全体代表reproductionn. 复制,再生,繁殖;复制品reptilen. 爬行动物,爬虫;两栖动物requisiteadj. 需要的,必要的[同]essentialn. 必需品,要素We supply every requisite for travel. 本店供应一切旅行用的必需品。[难点]requisite for … 所必需的(东西)resemblancen. 相似,类似;相似点或程度The two boys show great resemblances. 这两个男孩有许多相像之处。[难点]resemblance to … 与…相似resentvt. 愤恨,对…不满reservationn. 隐藏(物),保留(物)accept sth. without reservation 无保留地接受某事物n. 预订residevi. 居留,居住reside abroad 居住国外vi. 为…所有,归于The supreme authority resides in the President. 最高权力掌握在总统手中。[难点]reside in … (权利,权力等)为…所有reside at / in … 住在…residualadj. 剩余的,残余的[同]remainingadj. 残数的resignationn. 辞职,放弃hand in one’s resignation 提出辞呈n. 听从,顺从resoluteadj. 坚决的,果断的resolute for peace 贯彻和平的[难点]stand resolute against / for… 对…坚决抵抗/维护respectableadj. 有身份的,文雅的,体面的;值得尊敬的,可敬的do sth. from respectable motives 处于高尚的动机做某事adj. 相当大的,相当优秀的,相当重要的He has quite respectable talents. 他很有才干。resultantadj. 结果的;合成的,组合的(物理)retailn. 零售sell goods (by)retail 零售货物adj. 零售的;经营零售商品的retail dealers 零售商v. 零售;重述,转述[难点]by retail 零售Do you sell by wholesale or retail ? 你是批发还是零售?retardv. 阻止,妨碍retard development 阻碍发展v. 推迟,延迟;使减速retirementn. 引退retairement from the world 遁世隐居n. 退休,退职,退役There have been several retirements in my office recently.最近我办公室有几个人退休了。retortv. 反驳,顶嘴;反击,回报retort insult for insult 以牙还牙revenuen. 收入,国家的税收a revenue officer 税务官员n.(复数)收入之总额the revenue of the City Council 市议会的总收入revivev. 苏醒,复苏revive a person who has fainted 使一个晕倒的人复苏v. 复用,复兴,振兴revive the economy 振兴经济revolvev.(使)旋转The earth revolves about the sun. 地球绕着太阳转。[同]rotatev. 思考,深思revolve a problem in one’s mind 深思一个问题[难点]revolve about / around / round 绕…旋转ridiculen. 嘲笑,嘲弄pour ridicule on a scheme 对一计划加以讥笑vt. 嘲弄Why do you ridicule my proposal ? 你为什么嘲笑我的提议?[难点]hold sb. up to ridicule 嘲笑某人expose oneself to ridicule 使自己成为笑柄rigorousadj. 严格的,严厉的a rigorous discipline 严格的训练[同]strictadj. 严酷的,剧烈的adj. 精确的,严密的[同]preciserimn. 边,边缘;眼镜框the rim of a cup 杯的边缘rinsev. 漂洗,清洗[难点]rinse sth. ( out ) 以清水冲洗rinse sth. out of sth. 以清水冲洗(不要之物)rinse soap out of the clothes 以清水冲去衣服上的肥皂riotn. 暴动,骚动vi. 暴动;放纵,欢闹ripv. 拉开,撕开,割开rip open a letter 撕开信rip a tyre 割破车胎[难点]rip sth. / sb. off 偷窃(某物),诈骗(某人)ripplen. 水面上的微波,涟漪,起伏之声音,声浪A long ripple of laughter passed through the audience.听众间响起了一阵轻快的笑声。roamv. 闲逛He settled down after years of roaming. 他漂泊多年后定居下来。romancen. 传奇故事,爱情故事;罗曼史;传奇文学roostern. 公鸡roundaboutadj. 绕远道的,间接的,迂回的I heard the news in a roundabout way. 我间接听到这个消息。[同]indirectn. 环状交叉路;迂回路线You lose on the swings what you make on the roundabouts. (谚)失之东隅,收之桑榆。rown. 吼叫,吵闹;吵架,口角That man is always ready for a row. 那人性好争吵。royaltyn. 皇室,王族The play was performed in the presence of royalty. 这个戏曾在御前演出。rubyn. 红宝石,红玉ruthlessadj. 无情的,残忍的[同]cruelsafeguardvt. 保护,防卫safeguard one’s house against burglars 保卫住宅以防窃贼[同]defend , protectn. 安全设备或措施take no safeguards 未采取预防措施n. 安全装置;护照salmonn. 鲑鱼,大马哈鱼salutev.(向…)致敬,行礼;欢迎,迎接salute a friend with a smile 笑迎友人n. 致意He raised his hand in a salute. 他举手致意。n. 行礼,鸣礼炮sardinen. 沙丁鱼satisfactorilyadv. 令人满意地saturationn. 饱和(状态);渗透,浸润Saturnn.(罗马神话中的)农神;土星scandaln. 丑事,丑闻;诽谤,诋毁scarn. 伤疤,伤痕scarcityn. 缺乏,不足,供不应求The scarcity of fruit was caused by the drought. 干旱导致水果供不应求。scarletn. 鲜红色,猩红色adj. 鲜红的,猩红的;淫荡的scoffv. 嘲弄,嘲笑[难点]scoff at … 嘲弄…scoff at dangers 蔑视危险scorchv.(使)焦,(使)枯萎Mother scorched my shirt while ironing it. 母亲在烫我的衬衫时把它烫焦了。v. 挖苦scramblen. 攀缘,爬行;抢,争夺There was a scramble for the best seats. 大家都在抢最好的座位。v. 爬、攀登He scrambled up the side of a cliff. 他爬上峭壁。[同]climbv. 争夺The players scrambled to get possession of the ball. 球员们抢球。scrapn. 小片,碎屑scraps of paper 纸片n. 废料A man comes round regularly collecting scrap.有个男人定时前来收破烂。vt. 废弃You ought to scrap that old bicycle and buy a new one.你应该丢掉那辆旧自行车再买一辆新的。[同]discardscripturen. 圣经,(定语)圣经的,手稿,文件[难点]Scripture 基督教(圣经),经文scrubn. 擦洗,擦净The floor needs a good scrub. 这地板需要好好刷洗一番。v. 用力擦洗,刷净sculpturen. 雕刻,雕塑;雕刻品,雕塑品seamn. 衣缝,接缝;骨缝(解剖);矿层(地质)seaportn. 海港seasiden. 海滨,海边second-handadj. 旧的,二手的;得自他人的,间接的seeminglyadv. 表面上,外观上Seemingly she is unaware of the fact. 表面上她似乎不知道那个事实。segmentn. 节,段,片a segment of an orange 一瓣桔子senatorn. 参议员,上议员;(大学)理事sensationn. 知觉,感觉have a sensation of warmth 感到温暖n. 轰动The news created a great sensation. 这消息造成了很大的轰动。senselessadj. 失去知觉的fall senseless to the ground 失去知觉倒在地上[同]unconsciousadj. 愚蠢的a senseless idea 愚蠢的想法adj. 无意义的a senseless action 无意义的行动sensitivityn. 敏感,灵敏;(医)过敏sensorn. 灵敏元件,传感器sentimentn. 感情,情绪;伤感,善感;(复数)意见,观点sermonn.(宗)讲道,布道The minister preached a sermon. 牧师布道。n. 说教,训诫serpentn. 蛇;狡猾的人The serpent enticed Eve to eat the apple. 蛇引诱夏娃吃苹果。shabbyadj.(衣服、住宅等)褴褛的,破旧的You look rather shabby in those clothes. 你的衣着使你看上去显得有点寒酸。adj. 吝啬的shadowyadj. 多荫的,有阴影的,幽暗的cool and shadowy woods 阴凉的树木adj. 虚幻的,虚无的a shadowy form 虚无缥缈的形式adj. 模糊的,朦胧的a shadowy outline 模糊的轮廓shadyadj. 可疑的,有问题的a shady-looking man 形迹可疑的家伙adj. 多荫的shaftn. 轴,杆状物shamn. 假装者,赝品;虚假,借口What he says is all sham. 他所说的全是托辞。v. 假装He shammed death. 他装死。shamevt. 使蒙羞,使惭愧shame one’s family 玷污门楣[同]disgrace[难点]shame sb. into / out of doing sth. 使某人因羞愧而做/不做某事shamefuln. 鲨鱼;贪婪狡猾的人,骗子sharplyadv. 锋利地a sharply pointed pencil 笔尖尖的铅笔adv. 严厉地,苛刻地shatterv.(使)粉碎,砸碎The explosion shattered every window in the building.那次爆炸把该建筑物所有的窗户都震碎了。v. 毁坏,损害shatter one’s health 损害健康sheeradj. 纯粹的,全然的It was a sheer waste of time. 这纯粹是浪费时间。adj. 陡峭的,垂直的a sheer rock 陡峭的山岩sheriffn. 郡长,行政司法长官shipbuildingn. 造船;造船学shipmentn. 装船,装运[难点]a shipment of … 一船…shipwreckn. 船难,船只失事suffer shipwreck 遭受船难shortcutn. 近路,捷径There are no shortcuts to learning. 做学问是无捷径可走的。[同]cutoffshortenv.(使)变短,(使)减少The days are beginning to shorten. 白昼开始变短了。shorthandn. 速记,速记法make notes in shorthand 用速记记录shovev. 推,挤,撞shove a boat into the water 把船推进水中[同]push[难点]shove one’s way 推挤着前进shoveln. 铁锹,铲子vt. 铲,铲出shovel the snow away from the garden path 铲去圆径上的积雪[难点]a shovel of … = a shoveful of … 一铲…showerv. 大量给予;下阵雨;喷淋,使湿透[难点]shower sth. on / upon sb. = shower sb. with sth. 大量给予某人…shrilladj. 尖锐的,刺耳的shrill cries 尖锐的喊叫v. 尖叫,尖声地说出shrimpn. 虾shrinen. 神殿,神龛,圣祠shrubn. 灌木,灌木丛shrugv. 耸肩n. 耸肩with a shrug of despair 失望地耸耸肩[难点]shrug sth. off 对某事物不屑一顾shuttern. 窗板,百叶窗;(照相机)快门shuttlen. 航天飞机;梭子siegen. 包围,围困,围攻a siege of 50 days 围困50天siftv. 筛,筛分,过滤sift gold from sand 沙里淘金v. 筛撒,通过[难点]sift A from B 把A从B中筛出来signifyvt. 表示,表明,示意He signified his consent with a nod. 他点头表示同意。vt. 意味着vi. 要紧,重要It doesn’t signify. 那无关紧要。[同]mattersiliconn. 硅similarityn. 相似,类似points of similarity between the two men 二人相似之点n. 相似点simultaneousadj. 同时(发生、存在、完成)的sincerityn. 真诚;诚实speaking in all sincerity 极其诚恳地谈话[难点]in all sincerity 极其真诚地sirenn. 汽笛,警报器sitting-roomn. 起居室situatedadj. 位于…的,坐落在…的;(指人)处于(某种)境地的skeletonn. 骨骼,骨架,骸骨a human skeleton 人体骨骼n.(建筑物等的)骨架,框架,残骸[同]frameworkn. 梗概,提要,轮廓[同]outlineskipv. 轻快地跳,蹦skip over a brook 跳过小河v. 略过,遗漏He skipped the dull parts of the book. 他把这本书的枯燥部分略过不读。v. 跳绳;略读,迅速翻skyscrapern. 摩天大楼;特别高的东西slackadj. 懈怠的Don’t get slack at your work. 不要懈怠你的工作。adj. 萧条的,不景气的Business is slack this week. 这周的营业不景气。adj. 松的,松弛的The rope was slack. 绳子松了。n.(复数)便裤,宽松的裤子[难点]be slack in doing sth. 做某事马马虎虎slandern. 诋毁bring a slander action against sb. 以诽谤罪控告某人[同]scandalslangn. 俚语;行话,黑话slapn. 一巴掌,一击,击掌She gave him a slap on the cheek. 她打了他一个耳光。v. 掌击,掴She slapped on his face. 她打了他一个耳光。slaughtern. 屠宰,屠杀The cattle were sent for slaughter. 牛被送去屠宰。[同]massacrevt. 屠杀,杀戮slavevi. 努力工作,She has been slaving away at cooking for three hours. 她已辛苦烹饪三个小时了。vt. 奴役[难点]slave away at sth. 努力做某事slimadj. 苗条的,细长的;渺茫的slim hopes of success 成功的希望不大adj. 差的,低劣的slumbern.(复数)睡眠disturb one’s slumber 打扰某人的睡眠smartvt. 感到或引起剧痛The smoke made my eyes smart. 烟使我的眼睛感到剧痛。smashv. 打破,打碎smash a window 打破一扇窗户v. 猛冲,猛然碰撞The car smashed into a wall. 汽车撞到了墙。v. 击败,打破(记录等)The player smashed all the records. 这位选手打破了全部记录。smugglevt. 偷运,走私He smuggled Swiss watches into England. 他走私瑞士表进入英国。vt. 偷带(某物)smuggle a letter into a prison 偷带信件到监狱snackn. 小吃,快餐snailn. 蜗牛;行动迟缓的人snapn. 咬,猛咬;折断,脆裂v. 咬,猛然咬;截断[难点]snap at 企图去咬;厉声斥责I’m sorry I snapped at you just now. 我很抱歉刚才对你厉声说话。sneern. 嘲笑,讥笑You should ignore their sneers at your efforts. 你应当不理会他们对你努力的成果所作的嘲笑。v. 嘲笑,讥诮Don’t sneer at other’s failure. 不要嘲笑别人的失败sneezevi. 打喷嚏sniffv. 呼呼地吸气;嗅;嗤之以鼻, 轻视(at)sniff at flowers 嗅花They all had colds and were sniffing and sneezing.他们都伤风了, 呼呼喘气而且打喷嚏。snobn. 势利的人snobbishadj. 势利的,谄上欺下的a snobbish person 势利小人snorev. 打鼾My grandfather snores loudly. 我爷爷打鼾声音很响。v. 酣睡度过(away)snore away the afternoon 打着酣睡一下午n. 打鼾声His snores woke me up. 他的鼾声把我吵醒了。sociologyn. 社会学sodiumn. 钠(化学)sofan. 沙发softenv.(使)变软,(使)温和Her words softened my anger. 她的话平息了我的怒气。softnessn. 温和,柔和,软弱softwaren. 软件;软体solidarityn. 团结,一致national solidarity in th face of danger 面临危难时全国上下团结一致solidifyv.(使)变坚固,(使)凝固[同]hardenv.(使)团结solon. 独唱;独奏a violin solo 小提琴独奏曲sorrowfuladj. 可悲的,悲伤的,悔恨的[同]sad[难点]be sorrowful about … 对…感到悲伤southwardadv. 向南方souvenirn. 纪念品,纪念礼物sovereignn. 统治者,国君In some countries they have a king as a sovereign.有些国家以国王为元首。adj. 独立的,有主权的a sovereign state 独立国,主权国adj. 君主的,最高统治者的soyn. 酱油;大豆,黄豆spaciousadj. 宽阔的,广大的spatialadj. 空间的,与空间有关的speciesn.(单复同)种类the human species 人类This is a species of orange. 这是桔子的一种。specificationn. 指定,明确的说出;(复数)清单,规格,说明书the technical specifications of a new car 一辆新汽车的技术说明spectaclen. 公开展示,展览;景象,奇观The sunrise as seen on the sea was a fine spectacle. 海上看到的日出真是美妙的奇观.n.(复数)眼镜spectatorn. 观众,旁观者Many spectators watched the baseball game. 很多观众观看这场棒球赛。spectrumn. 光谱,波谱;系列,范围speculatevt. 思索,推测speculate on the future of the human race 推测人类的未来vt. 做投机买卖He speculated in stocks. 他做股票的投机生意。sphericaladj. 球形的,球面的;天体的spicen. 香料,调味品The cook added spice to the soup. 厨师在汤里加调味品。n. 趣味,风味a story that lacks spice 缺乏趣味的故事n. 香气,香味spiraladj. 螺旋的,盘旋的n. 螺旋The rocket went up in a spiral. 火**盘旋着上升。splashv. 溅出,泼湿(某人/某物)The taxi splashed mud on / over my skirt. 出租车将淤泥溅在我的裙子上。n. 飞溅(声);飞溅的污渍[难点]splash sth. / sb. with sth. 把…溅到某物/某人上spokesmann. 发言人,代言人spontaneousadj. 自发的,自然发生的He made a spontaneous offer of help. 他自发地提供帮助。Squashv. 积压,压坏Don’t sit in my hat , you’ll squash it flat. 不要坐在我的帽子上,你会把它压扁。n. 果汁饮料orange squash 桔子水squatv. 跪坐,(使)蹲下staggerv.(使)蹒跚,摇晃stainlessadj. 无污点的,清白的a stainless reputation 清白的名誉staircasen. 楼梯,楼梯间stairwayn. 楼梯stalkn.(植物的)主茎;高烟囱stalln. 牲口棚舍;售货台stammern. 口吃,结巴v. 口吃,结结巴巴地说出standardizevt. 使标准化Standardized products are usually cheaper than handmade articles.标准化的产品通常比手工制品便宜。stationeryn.(总称)文具;信笺,信封statisticsn. 统计学;统计,统计数字steakn. 牛排,鱼片,肉片They served steaks to their guests. 他们端上牛排请客人吃。stereon. 立体声音响装置adj. 立体声的sternadj. 严格的,严肃的a stern teacher 严厉的老师adj. 坚定的,坚决的a stern resolve 毫不动摇的决心n. 船尾We matched the stern of the steamer disappear. 我们看到汽船的船尾消失。n. 臀部stewn. 炖肉,炖菜prepare a stew 做一道炖菜v. 炖,焖,用文火煮stewed chicken 炖鸡stiffnessn. 硬度(物理)stillnessn. 平静,寂静[同]quietnessstitchn.(缝纫)一针;缝线,针脚put stitches into 缝合伤口take stitches out of a wound 拆去伤口的缝线v. 缝合,缝纫stormn. 暴风雨a storm of cheering / abuse 热烈的欢呼/严厉的斥责v. 狂怒,咆哮;突袭,攻占,闯入The men stormed into the fort. 士兵们猛攻后进入了那座堡垒。stoutadj. 坚固的,结实的a stout ship 坚固的船adj.(人)相当胖的The man is too stout for his old clothes. 这人太胖了,旧衣服都穿不下。adj. 勇敢的,坚毅的straightenv. 使变直,变平正;整顿,澄清straighten out an account 清理账目straighten up the house 整理房屋straightforwardadj. 诚实的,坦白的a straightforward explanation 坦率的解释adj. 易懂的,易做的written in straightforward language 用浅显文字写成的adv. 坦率地;径直地straitn. 海峡,峡the Straits of Dover 多佛尔海峡n.(复数)困难,窘迫be in financial straits 经济困难strayadj. 迷路的a stray child 迷路的孩子vi. 走失,迷路The party strayed from the path. 这一伙人迷路了。vi. 离题;偏离,背离stray from the rule 违背规则streamlinen. 流线型;流线(物理)striden. 大步,阔步;(复数)进步v. 大步行走;跨坐在…上stride a fence 跨坐在栅栏上strifen. 冲突,争斗There used to be frequent strife between the two families.以前他们两家常有争吵。n. 竞争strikingadj. 显著的,引起注意的[同]noticeablestrivevi. 抗争,搏斗;努力,奋斗He strove to win the prize. 他为获奖而努力。[难点]strive for sth. 为…而努力strive to do sth. 努力做…strive against / with sth. / sb. 与..作斗争strolln. 漫步,散步go for a stroll 去散步v. 漫步The couple strolled arm in arm. 那对夫妇挽着臂散步。stubbornadj. 固执的,顽固的a stubborn illness 顽疾[同]obstinateadj. 顽强的,不屈的a stubborn resistance 顽强的抵抗[难点]as stubborn as a mule 像骡子般倔强studion. 画室,工作室,播音室,制片厂stuffyadj. 气闷的,不透气的a stuffy room 闷热的房间sturdyadj. 强健的,强壮的sturdy children 健壮的孩子们adj. 结实的,坚固的sturdy box 坚固的箱子adj. 坚定的,刚毅的sturdy resistance 不屈不挠的抵抗subdividev. 再分,细分subduevt. 征服,制服,战胜The army subdued the enemy. 这军队战胜了敌人。[同]conquervt. 压制,抑制subdue one’s anger 压制怒气vt. 缓和,减弱(声音、光线等)subordinateadj. 下级的,从属的,次要的in a subordinate position 居次要地位[同]junioradj. 从属的,从句的[难点]be subordinate to … 从属于…,低于…A captain is subordinate to a major. 上尉比少校的级别低。subscribevt. 捐助He subscribed ¥500 to the flood relief fund. 他捐了五百元作为水灾救济基金。vt. 签署、签名subscribe one’s name to a petition 签名于请愿书vi. 订阅I subscribe for / to several monthly magazines. 我订阅了数种月刊。vi. 认购subscribe for 100 shares 认购100股subscriptadj. 写在下方(或下角的)n. 添标,下标,角注subscriptionn. 捐助,订阅,签署;捐助金,订阅费,预约金subsequentlyadv. 后来,其次subsidiaryadj. 辅助的,次要的,附属的a subsidiary company 附属公司n. 辅助者,辅助机构,子公司[难点]be subsidiary to sth. 辅助…的,比…次要的,附属于…的subtleadj. 精巧的,巧妙的subtle humor 巧妙的幽默[同]delicateadj. 微妙的,细微的a subtle distinction 细微的差别successorn. 后继者,继承者appoint a successor to a headmaster 任命校长继承人sufficevi. 足够The money will suffice for the trip. 这笔钱足够旅行了。vt. 使满足One meal a day won’t suffice a growing boy. 一天一顿不能满足正在发育中的男孩的需要。[难点]suffice for sth. 对…足够了suffice it ( to say ) that … 只要(说)…就够了Suffice it to say that the gun was his. 只需说这枪是他的就够了。suiciden. 自杀;自杀事件,自杀者v. 自杀suicide oneself 自杀summitn. 最高点,顶点the summit of one’s ambition 野心的极点summonvt. 召唤,传唤,召集;鼓起(勇气),奋起(力量等)He summoned up all his courage to meet the danger.他鼓起全部勇气面对危险。[难点]summon sb. to sth. 召集某人summon shareholders to a general meeting 召集股东大会summon sb. to do sth. 召唤某人干某事summon a man to appear as a witness 传唤一男子出庭作证superbadj. 壮丽的,华丽的;头等的,极好的superiorityn. 优越性,优势sense of superiority 优越感supersonicadj. 超音速fly at supersonic speed 以超音速飞行superstitionn. 迷信,迷信行为(或观念)supervisev. 监督,管理,指导suppressvt. 镇压,平定suppress a rebellion 镇压叛乱vt. 抑制suppress one’s anger 压制怒气[同]restrainvt. 隐瞒suppress the truth 隐匿**vt. 查禁,取缔suppress a newpaper 查封一家报纸surpassvt. 超越,胜过She surpassed her sister in intelligence. 她的智力胜过她的姐姐。[同]excelsurplusn. 剩余,过剩a surplus of coffee 咖啡过剩[同]excessadj. 剩余的,过剩的surplus population 过剩人口[同]extrasurvivaln. 继续生存,残存,幸存the survival of the fittest 适者生存suspiciousadj. 可疑的The affair looks suspicious to me. 这事在我看来可疑。[同]questionableadj. 多疑的She has a suspicious nature. 她性情多疑。[同]distrustful[难点]become / be / feel suspicious about / of …. 对…感到怀疑They are suspicious of you. 她们对你有怀疑。sweetenv.(使)变甜;(使)变可爱;(使)变温和sweeten sb’s temper 使某人心平气和sweetnessn. 甜味,甜度;甜蜜,愉快;新鲜,清新;温柔,温和[难点]sweetness and light 和蔼可亲(的人或事)symmetricaladj. 对称的,均称的symmetryn. 对称,对称美,匀称symphonyn. 交响乐,交响曲;交响乐队symposiumn. 专题讨论会;专题论文集symptomn. 症状the symptom of influenza 流感的症状n. 征兆,表征synthesisn. 综合,合成,综合物systematicallyadj. 系统地,有规则地,体系上tabulatevt. 列表显示The information is tabulated. 这份资料是列表显示的。tackn. 平头钉v. 钉住She tacked a notice to the board. 她把一张通知钉在布告栏上。v. 附加tacklev. 对付,解决How can we tackle this problem ? 我们如何解决这个问题?[同]deal withn. 装备,器具[同]apparatustactn. 老练,机敏,圆滑tacticn. 策略,手法;(复数)战术,兵法tameadj. 沉闷的,乏味的[同]dulltanglev.(使)缠结Your hair is so tangled that I can’t comb it. 你的头发太蓬乱,我没法梳。v.(使)混乱tangled thought 混乱的思绪[同]confused[难点]tangle with sb. 与某人纠缠tankern. 油船tapern. 细小的蜡烛;微光;减弱v. 使逐渐变弱(变细)The stick tapers off to a point. 这个棒的一端逐渐变细,形成尖端。tarn. 焦油,柏油teamv. 协作,合作[难点]team up 协作,合作I teamed up with Jane to do the job. 我和简合作做这件工作。teasevt. 戏弄,取笑They teased me because I am fat. 我很胖,因而被他们取笑。telexn. 用户电报tensileadj. 张力的,拉力的;可伸长的terminatev.(使)停止,(使)结束terminate a contract 中止合同terminologyn. 术语学;术语,专用名词terracen. 平台,阳台;梯田terrifyvt. 使恐怖,恐吓Heights terrify me ! 离地面太高我就心惊胆颤![同]frightenterroristn. 恐怖主义者,恐怖主义testifyv. 证明,作证He testified that he’d seen the robbery. 他证实他看到了那次抢劫。tightenv.(使)变紧,(使)绷紧The government are tightening up the driving laws. 政府对驾驶法规的执行将更为严格。tightlyadv. 紧地,牢固地;整齐地tilen. 瓦片,瓷砖;贴砖,铺瓦tiltv.(使)歪斜,(使)翘起Tilt the barrel up to empty it. 把大桶倾斜,倒空里头的东西。[同]slantv. 向(敌人)冲刺tilt at windmills 攻击想象中的敌人timelyadj. 及时的;适时的tiresomeadj. 使人厌烦的;使人疲劳的toadn. 蟾蜍,蛤蟆;讨厌的人tokenn. 象征,标志;记号;辅币tolerantadj. 容忍的,宽容的[同]broadmindedtormentn. 痛苦,折磨,烦恼vt. 折磨Stop tormenting your father by asking silly questions. 别再问一些愚蠢的问题来折磨你父亲了。n. 虐待,拷问torpedon. 鱼雷torquen. 转(力)矩(物理)tossv. 翻来覆去,辗转反侧The boat was tossed about on the stormy sea. 小船在风急雨骤的海上颠簸不停。towv. 拖引,牵引tow a damaged ship into port 将损坏的船拖进港[同]pulln. 牵引,拖引Can we give you a tow ? 我们能帮你拖一下吗?tradern. 商人tradesmann. 商人,店主;手艺人tragicadj. 悲剧性的;灾难性的,悲惨的[同]miserabletrampv. 步行,跋涉They traped the woods all day. 他们整天穿越树林。n. 步行,跋涉tramplev. 践踏,蹂躏trample on someone’s feelings 践踏某人的感情[同]stampn.(单数)践踏,蹂躏[难点]trample down 用力蹂躏,踩坏trample on/upon/over 践踏,轻蔑地对待transactionn. 处理,办理;(复数)会报,学报;交易,事务transitionn. 转变,变迁;过渡[难点]transition from … to 由…过渡到,由…变化成transplantv. 移种transplant young cabbage plants 移种包菜幼苗v. 移植transplant a heart 移植心脏transverseadj. 横切的,横向的n. 横轴,横骨,横墙traversev. 横切,横越The railway traverses hundreds of miles of desert. 这条铁路贯穿数百英里的沙漠。treadv. 踏,践踏Don’t tread on the flowers! 不要践踏花卉!treasurern. 司库,财务主管trenchn. 深沟;壕沟triangularadj. 三角形的tributen. 贡物,贡金;礼物,颂词,称赞triflev. 玩弄;开玩笑,轻视[难点]trifle…with 嘲弄,轻视triggern. 扳机,触发器;起动装置v. 触发,导致,引起[难点]trigger off 引发,引起Who triggered off the rebellion ? 是谁触发了这次叛乱?triumphantadj. 得胜的;成功的;得意洋洋的trivialadj. 琐碎的;轻微的;平常的trolleyn. 手推车,小车;无轨电车tropicn.(复数)热带地区;回归线trotv.(马)小跑,慢跑n.(单数)小跑,疾走go at a steady trot 一路以快步行进tuberculosisn. 结核病,肺结核tugv. 拉,拖The kitten was tugging at my shoelace. 那小猫在拉我的鞋带。n. 拉,拖tulipn. 郁金香tunan. 金枪鱼turtlen. 海龟;甲鱼tutorv.(个别的)教导,指导twilightn. 黎明,曙光;黄昏,暮色[同]dusktwistv. 歪曲,曲解The police tried to twist his words into a confession of guilt.警方试图把他的话曲解为招供。[同]distorttyrannyn. 暴政,苛政;残暴,专横tyrantn. 暴君,专制君主ultimateadj. 根本的,基本的,首要的[同]fundamentalultrasonicadj. 超声的,超音速的n. 超声波ultravioletadj. 紫外线的unanimousadj. 一致的,一致同意的[难点]be unanimous in 在…方面意见完全一致underestimatevt. 低估,看轻Don’t underestimate the enemy’s strength. 不要低估敌人的实力。undertakingn. 任务,事业[同]projectn. 企业;承担,保证underwearn. 内衣unemploymentn. 失业;失业人数unfitadj. 不合适的;没能力的[难点]be unfit for / to do sth. 不适合(做)…unfoldv. 展开,打开;显示,显出The landscape unfolded before us. 景色展现在我们面前。[同]revealuniformlyadv. 相同地,一致地;一贯地,始终如一地universallyadv. 普遍地,一般地[同]generallyunlimitedadj. 无限的,无边无际的;不定的unlockv. 开锁,开启unlock a door 开门上的锁v. 解开,揭露unpaidadj. 未付的,未缴纳的;无报酬的unreasonableadj. 不合理的,非理智的;过分的untiev. 解开,松开untie one’s tie 解开领带[同]undov. 解放,解决upholdvt. 举起,高举;支撑;拥护;赞成I can’t uphold such conduct. 我不赞成这种行为。vt. 确认uproarn.(单数)骚动,喧闹[难点]be in an uproar 吵吵闹闹utensiln. 器皿,用具kitchen utensil 厨房用具utilizationn. 利用;效用vaccinatev. 给…种牛痘validityn. 有效;正确;合法性valven. 阀门;电子管vaultn. 拱顶;地下室,地窖vectorn. 向量,矢量(数学)veilv. 蒙上面纱;隐蔽veinn. 静脉,血管;叶脉;矿脉velvetadj. 丝绒制的;柔软的vengeancen. 报复,复仇ventilatevt. 使…通风;使…换气ventilate a room 使房间通风Venusn. 维纳斯;金星vergen. 边缘;边界,界限[难点]be on the verge of 濒于…bring sb. to the verge of 使某人濒临versatileadj. 多方面的,多才多艺的a versatile mind 多才多艺的人adj. 通用的versen. 诗,诗句versusprep. 与…相对,对veton. 否决;禁止vicinityn. 附近,邻近地区[同]neighborhoodviciousadj. 邪恶的,堕落的;恶意的,恶毒的;有错误的videon. 电视,视频adj. 电视的,视频的vigorn. 活力,精力[同]powervillan. 别墅vinen. 蔓,藤violatevt. 违反,违犯;侵犯,亵渎violate sb’s privacy 侵犯某人的隐私violationn. 违反,违犯;侵犯,冒犯virginn. 处女,贞女adj. 处女的,贞洁的;未开垦的virtualadj. 实际上的,事实上的[同]practicalvisan. 签证viscousadj. 粘滞的,粘性的,半流体的visitv. 常去…做短期逗留vocationn. 职业,行业voidadj. 空的;无效的,无用的volunteern. 志愿者,义勇兵v. 志愿,自愿He volunteered for the campaign. 他自愿参加这次战斗。[难点]volunteer to do sth. / for sth. 自愿去做某事vown. 誓言,誓约;许愿voweln. 元音;元音字母vulgaradj. 粗俗的,粗陋的[同]rudewadev. 涉过(水、泥地、沙滩等),费力行走The boy waded through the dull book. 那男孩费力地阅读这本枯燥的书。wagv. 摇动,摆动The dog wagged its tail. 狗摇着尾巴。waitressn. 女侍者,女服务生walnutn. 胡桃,胡桃树,胡桃木wardn. 病房isolation ward 隔离病房wardroben. 衣橱,衣柜[同]cupboardwaren.(复数)货物,商品;物品,器皿,陶器warehousen. 仓库,货栈warfaren. 战争,作战[同]warn. 战争状态warningn. 警告,警戒He paid no attention to my warnings. 他不理会我的警告。[同]cautionwarrantn. 正当的理由,根据He had no warrant for saying so. 他那样说毫无理由。n. 委任状,许可证waspn. 黄蜂,马蜂wastefuladj. 浪费的,挥霍的watchfuladj. 注意的,警惕的,警戒的[同]alert[难点]be watchfull against / of 提防watertightadj. 不漏水的,防水的wateryadj. 水的,水汪汪的,加水太多的watery soup 稀薄的汤wattn. 瓦,瓦特(电)wavervi. 摇摆wavering shadows 摇曳的阴影vi. 犹豫不决,动摇He wavered in his resolution. 他犹豫不决。[难点]waver with 因…而颤抖waver in 在…方面犹豫waver between … and 在…与…之间犹豫不定wayn. 状态,状况,情况[同] condition , stateweavern. 织布工;编织者webn. 蜘蛛网;网状物,网状组织wedgen. 楔,楔形物v. 楔入,挤进wedge packing into a crack 把填料楔入裂缝中whalen. 鲸鱼wharfn. 码头whereasconj. 而,却,反之Some people like coffee , whereas others hate it. 有些人喜欢咖啡,而有些人却不喜欢。[同]while[难点]wherebyadv. 靠什么,由此He devised a plan whereby he might escape. 他想出了一个可借以逃脱的方法。whilstconj. 当…的时候,然而whiskern.(复数)连鬓胡子,络腮胡子whisperv. 私下说,偷偷告诉The story is being whispered about the neighbourhood. 这故事正在附近流传。whitewashn. 石灰水,白粉水vt. 粉刷;掩饰,粉饰wholesomeadj. 卫生的,有益健康的[同]healthfulwidelyadv. 大大地widely different 大不相同的wieldvt. 挥动(武器等);掌握,行使wield power 运用权力willown. 柳树,柳木,柳枝windingn. 缠,绕;线圈,绕组adj. 卷绕的;弯曲的;迂回的windmilln. 风车windyadj. 多风的,刮风的winkv. 眨眼He winked a tear away. 他眨眼落下了眼泪。v. 眨眼示意[难点]wink at sb. 向某人眨眼示意witherv. 枯萎,凋谢The hot summer withered up the grass. 炎热的夏季使草枯萎了。witnessn. 证明,证据,证言[同]evidencewittyadj. 机智的;风趣的,诙谐的woen. 悲哀,悲痛a tale of woe 悲哀的故事[同]sorrow , griefwoodpeckern. 啄木鸟wrathn. 暴怒,狂怒[同]ragen. 愤慨[同]indignationwrenchv. 猛扭wrench the door open 用力把门扭开n. 拧,突然的扭转;扳手,扳钳wrestlen. 斗争,搏斗[同]strugglen. 摔跤,角力wretchedadj. 可怜的,不幸的[同]miserableadj. 恶劣的,坏的wringv. 拧,挤,扭,榨wring a person’s hand 紧握某人的手They wrung a confession from her. 他们千方百计地逼她招供。wrinklen. 皱,皱纹v.(使)起皱纹,皱眉wrinkle up one’s forehead 皱起眉头writingn. 写,写作;著作,作品xeroxn. 静电复印v. 用静电复印yachtn. 游艇,快艇yearnvi. 渴望,怀念He yearned to return to his native land. 他渴望返回故乡。vi. 向往[难点]yearn to do 渴求做yearn for 希望得到yeastn. 酵母yoken. 轭,牛轭;束缚,奴役[难点]pass / come under the yoke 承认失败,屈从throw off the yoke 摆脱奴役,反抗yolkn. 蛋黄youngstern. 儿童,少年,年轻人zincn. 锌vt. 在…上镀锌
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